GAIA 5 Eco-House
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Most Important Goals
- Make new formal proposals, based on dynamic composition of walls of high thermal load.
- With new architectural systems of air cooling, using an architectural structure based on a three-storey central space, and two lateral wings of a single height.
- Conduct a home energy self-sufficient, and with high storage capacity and water reuse.
- Conduct a home with unique design, high budget, and with a high sustainable level.
- Make a house with a high level of industrialization, despite its formal singularity.
The house consists of three bodies twinned with irregular structure. The centerpiece is a three-storey covered patio in winter behaves as a greenhouse-heated housing-and in summer a generation of fresh air.
Housing behaves completely different in winter or summer, and can be reconfigured easily to move from one state to another. In winter, the house becomes a large greenhouse, getting the maximum solar radiation in the south. In contrast, in summer, the windows close completely south, and housing is illuminated by indirect sunlight from the north and central covered courtyard zenith.
1. Resource Optimization
1.1. Natural Resources. They take full advantage of resources such as the sun (to heat the house), the wind, water and earth (to cool the house), rainwater (for garden irrigation and flushing toilets), .... . On the other hand, we have installed water saving devices in faucets, showers and flush toilets.
1.2. Resources made. The materials used are maximized, avoiding possible waste through proper project, and effective management (concrete, concrete blocks, wood, woodwork, plywood, paint, ...). On the other hand, the correct design of housing, based on load-bearing walls, can be built with little supporting resources (such as scaffolding, cranes, etc ...).
1.3. Resources recovered, reused and recycled.
The vast majority of housing materials can be recovered (pool, carpentry, glass, wood beams, girders, walkways, stairs, cabinets, wood coatings, sunscreens, health, ...).
On the other hand, has promoted the use of recycled and recyclable materials such as polypropylene water pipes, drain pipes, polyethylene, chipboard OSB for interior doors, plywood boards, coatings, recycled glass for countertops the kitchen, floors, steps, and windows, etc ...
Finally, it has made extensive use of recovered materials (waste) and reused, such as wooden beams, furniture, flooring and accessories.
2. Reduced energy consumption
The house was built with minimum energy consumption. The vast majority of the materials used were manufactured using a minimum amount of energy. In addition, housing has been built with hardly any assistive devices, and with very little labor.
Due to their bioclimatic characteristics, the home has a very low conventional energy. The house is heated by a fireplace emissions and biomass. Hot water is generated by two solar thermal captors. The house is cooled by geothermal architectural systems and spraying water, and does not need conditioning mechanical systems, so no energy to cool.
The vast majority of materials used can be recovered easily. On the other hand, housing is projected to have a high durability, as all housing components are easily repairable.
3. Use of alternative energy sources
The energy used is of two types: solar thermal (solar captors for two ACS, and evaporation of water to cool air) and geothermal (air refresh system leveraging existing low temperatures underground, in the galleries below forged sanitary housing).
4. Reduction of waste and emissions
The property does not generate any emissions and does not generate any waste, except organic. Some of these household waste are used again to treat them accordingly (greywater for watering the garden). On the other hand, during the construction of the house hardly generated waste.
5. Improving health and wellbeing
All materials used are environmentally friendly and healthy and have no emissions that can affect human health. Similarly, the house is naturally ventilated, and maximizes natural light (artificial lighting can not be used as long as natural lighting), creating a healthy environment and provides the best possible quality of life for building occupants .
6. Reduced price of the building and maintenance
The house has been designed in a rational way, and most of its components are industrialized, eliminating unnecessary items, unnecessary or gratuitous, allowing construction to a greatly reduced price, despite the equipment that incorporates ecological. Similarly, housing is almost maintenance: regular cleaning, and treatment of wood biennial vegetable oils.
1.1. Heat Generation Systems
The house is heated by itself, in two ways: 1. Avoiding cool: Due to its high thermal insulation, and proper disposal of glass surfaces. 2. Due to its careful and special bioclimatic design, and perfect NS orientation, housing is heated by the greenhouse effect, direct sunlight, and solar radiant floor heating, and remains hot for a long time, due to its high thermal inertia.
1.2. Fresh Generation Systems
The house cools itself in three ways: 1. Avoiding heat, providing most of the glass surface to the south (featuring sunscreens for the direct and indirect solar radiation), and providing adequate insulation. 2. Cooling through a cooling system architecture of air through underground galleries. On the other hand, due to high thermal inertia of the building, the accumulated fresh overnight stays for nearly all the next day. The fact that the property is partially buried possible that tends to stay fresh, and even temperature, throughout the year. 3. Evacuating the hot air outside the home, through the upper windows of the central covered courtyard. The slant of the roof enhances the natural convection and provides an effective "chimney effect" to extract the hot air inside the house.
3. Storage systems (heat or cool)
The heat generated during the day in winter accumulates on the floors and load-bearing walls, keeping the house warm at night. Similarly, generated during the cool summer night up in the floors and load-bearing walls, keeping the house cool during the day. The roof garden high thermal inertia, reinforces this process.
4. Transfer systems (heat or cool).
The heat generated by natural radiation emissions and is distributed in the form of hot air through the building from the Central Conservatory. Similarly, the system of floor heating runs throughout the house. The heat accumulated in the load-bearing walls is transmitted to the radiation side rooms.
The cool air generated in the underground galleries are spread over housing through a set of grids spread over the slab of the house. On the other hand, fresh air ascends through the central courtyard and through all the rooms through vents inside the interior doors.
5. Natural ventilation
The ventilation of the building is continuously and naturally through the very walls of enclosures, allowing adequate ventilation without energy loss. This type of ventilation is possible because all materials are breathable (ceramics, cement-lime mortar, paint silicates), although the set has a completely waterproof performance.
1. Foundations and structure.
Walls of two leaves and isolation. The inner leaf wall load is based on blocks of wood-cement (Durisols) of 20 cm. thick, and large format. These blocks are filled with sand, or isolation, depending on their housing situation. The outer leaf is built with lightweight concrete panels of 7 cm. Inside the double leaf is a layer of hemp insulation 6 cm. and a ventilated air space of 3 cm. The floor is made out of prefabricated reinforced concrete panels.
2. Exterior finishes
Silicate paint. Tongue and groove boards and battens, Ipe wood, heat treated and dyed with vegetable oils.
3. Interior finishes
Paintings vegetables. Flooring porcelain tile. Double panel doors plywood, beech plywood, and treated with vegetable oils.
Roof garden, with an average thickness of 30 cm. of soil. Pitched roof sandwich panel based includes: top Viroc board (wood chips and cement) of 13 mm, bottom board of birch plywood 13 mm, internal insulation of hemp fiber of 10 cm. in thickness. Based coating with a layer of rubber sheet and a coating of zinc.
Water pipes made of polypropylene. Polyethylene drainage pipes. Energy-efficient appliances. Silestone kitchen countertops antibacterial. Walls and floors of high performance glass (anti-scratch, anti-slip, easy cleaning, special screen, ...). Iroko wood carpentry treated with vegetable oils. Cotton canvas awnings. Shading of Ipe hardwood, treated with vegetable oils. All woods used have a certificate of origin with selective logging and ecological treatment (FSC).
Most important innovations
- System architecture refresh, using a small three-storey central space. The cool air generated and maintained in the basement runs the side wings of the building, and rises again through the side wings (in reverse) to exit the top of the central area (extracted by chimney effect).
- System of de-wetting "Peltier effect", very low power consumption. The house has a perfect bioclimatic behavior, and in summer can offer, through the system architecture described, temperatures around 24 º C. However, as the humidity is high, it is possible to lower the humidity level inside the house using a simple mechanical system, and very low power consumption. This will improve the comfort level of occupants, without the need for mechanical air conditioning systems.
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