GAIA 1 ECO-HOUSE
Ecological Construction "Lliri Blau"
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1. Most Important Goals
- Conduct an exercise model of ecological rehabilitation of existing housing to serve as reference for future generations.
- Conduct an exercise sustainable indoor models.
- Conduct a semi-detached housing prototype for mass promotion in the Mediterranean climate, in lots of reduced dimensions.
- Make a simple prototype of bioclimatic house to stay cool in hot weather without air conditioning.
- Build a home of very high energy efficiency
Build a home self-Water
- Show prefabricated building systems with high level of industrialization, much of factory-made components.
- Propose a home with only artificial lighting fixtures based on LEDs, ultra-low power
- Propose an organic garden with native species, with very little need for irrigation and maintenance.
2. Architectural solution of the set
GAIA-1 is a semi-detached house located in the complex ecological Lliri Blau. Blau Lliri was designed by Luis de Garrido in 2001 and built in 2004. This makes it the first green development in Spain.
Blau Lliri 129 in a residential housing located in the extension of the urban fabric of Massalfassar, about 15 km. the city of Valencia. The complex consists of 3 blocks of flats (with 17 different types) and a front paired houses. GAIA-1 is one of those semi-detached houses. The sale price of homes was really low, ranging from the cheapest 60,000 euros (one bedroom apartment), and the most expensive € 180,000 (4 bedroom semi-detached single-family).
The architectural structure of Lliri Blau was projected to all houses have a north-south, and on this basis, a good bioclimatic operation and high efficiency. In addition, all materials used were recycled, healthy, natural and organic.
No doubt, the most characteristic of the development is the provision and type of building blocks.
The blocks are separated from each other at a distance such as to ensure that all households have the highest level of direct solar radiation in winter. To achieve this, while maximizing the degree of utilization permitted by law, has played with the location of mandatory assignments to use half the civil service. Instead of giving the 15% average advantage in an arbitrary site, has carefully chosen its location between the projected linear blocks. This will ensure adequate separation between them, and "privatize" the space provided.
The space provided is destined to green areas, but since they are located between two blocks walking distance, residents outside the urban feel intimidated, and do not. Thus, urbanization has "captured" these public spaces for their own enjoyment. Public spaces are divided into two, and kept separate by the private green area where the pool is private deck. This has increased the "privatization" of public gardens.
The blocks have a linear type with interior holes. This will create "microclimates" and spaces that encourage coexistence and neighborly relations. The houses are terraced, two by two, and have three facades.
The blocks have a set of galleries in the north for access to different homes. These galleries allow the generation and maintenance of a large bag of fresh air that moves through the house for ventilation.
On the other hand, the first line of the set is made up of terraced houses. The typology of these properties allows their subsequent stays even have a high level of natural lighting.
In total there are 17 different housing types in the set. Apartments simplex 2, 3 and 4 bedroom duplex in several bedrooms, 4 bedroom triplex and 4 bedroom townhouses and three heights.
GAIA-1 is one of those semi-detached houses, but with an architectural structure transformed.
3. Architectural solution GAIA-1
GAIA-1 has three levels. The ground floor has a single multifunctional room which houses all day activity. The first floor has three bedrooms and two bathrooms. The second floor has a bedroom and garden terrace.
4. Sustainable Analysis
1. Resource Optimization
1.1. Natural Resources. They take full advantage of resources such as the sun (to generate hot water, and provide natural lighting throughout the interior of the house), the breeze, the land (to cool the house), rainwater (water tanks reserve for garden irrigation and consumption), vegetation (for the roof garden) ... .. On the other hand, we have installed water saving devices in faucets, showers and tanks housing and treatment systems and naturalization of gray water and rainwater for mineral water suitable for consumption.
1.2. Resources made. The materials used are maximized, reducing potential waste through proper project management and effective (concrete panels Termoarcilla blocks, wood paneling, bamboo paneling, ceramic tile, woodwork, sandwich panels, ...) .
1.3. Resources recovered, reused and recycled.
The vast majority of building materials can be recovered (flooring, woodwork, glass, wood beams, girders, deck, cabinets, wood coatings, sunscreens, health, ...).
On the other hand, has promoted the use of recycled and recyclable materials such as polypropylene water pipes, drain pipes, polyethylene, chipboard, insulation made from recycled paper towels aircraft, panels, recycled plastic recycled glass, Silestone and ECO panels for kitchen countertops and floors, etc ...
2. Reduced energy consumption
Housing has built and renovated with minimum energy consumption. The materials used were manufactured with a minimum amount of energy.
Due to their bioclimatic characteristics, the home has a very low power consumption.
The house is heated by the greenhouse effect, heat emitted by the occupants and, just possibly, electric accumulators nightly rate. Hot water is generated through the solar thermal sensors built into the south face of the whole.
The house is cooled by a geothermal underground architectural system, and needs no mechanical conditioning system, so no energy.
The vast majority of materials used can be easily recovered for reuse in the construction of another building (flooring, woodwork, glass, wood beams, girders, deck, walkways, cabinets, wood coatings, sunscreens, pergolas heather, health, ...).
3. Use of alternative energy sources
The energy used is of two types: solar thermal (solar captors to produce the ACS) and geothermal (architectural system to cool the air, taking advantage of existing low temperatures underground in the tunnels underneath the house).
4. Reduction of waste and emissions
The property does not generate any emissions, nor generate any waste, except human waste.
5. Improving health and wellbeing
All materials used are environmentally friendly and healthy and have no emissions that can affect human health. Similarly, the house is naturally ventilated, and maximizing natural lighting, creating a healthy environment and provides the best possible quality of life for its occupants.
6. Reduced cost of construction and maintenance
The house has been designed rationally, eliminating unnecessary items, unnecessary or gratuitous, allowing construction to a conventional price, despite the equipment that incorporates ecological.
On the other hand, the price of construction and housing reform has been very low. In this sense we say that the initial sale price of housing was 180,000 euros (construction price was 125,000 euros), and the total price of the reforms has been about 60,000 euros. Therefore, the cost price of housing has been renovated 185,000 euros. Counting the furniture and accessories, the total cost of GAIA-1 has been of 238,877 euros.
5. Bioclimatic Characteristics
1.1. Heat Generation Systems
The house is heated by itself, in two ways: 1. Avoiding cool: Due to its high thermal insulation, and having large glass surfaces just to the south. 2. Due to its careful and special bioclimatic design, and perfect NS orientation, housing greenhouse is heated by solar radiation and direct, and remains hot for a long time, due to its high thermal inertia.
1.2. Fresh Generation Systems
The house cools itself in three ways: 1. Avoiding heat, providing most of the glass surface just to the south and east, providing sun protection for the direct and indirect solar radiation (a type of protection different for each of the holes with different orientation), and providing isolation appropriate. 2. Cooling through a cooling system architecture of air through underground galleries. On the other hand, due to high thermal inertia of the building, the accumulated fresh overnight stays for nearly all the next day. 3. Evacuating the hot air outside the home, through the upper windows of the attic, as a central covered courtyard. The slant of the roof enhances the natural convection and provides an effective "chimney effect" to extract the hot air inside the house.
3. Storage systems (heat or cool)
The heat generated during the day in winter accumulates on the floor slab and the concrete load-bearing walls, keeping the house warm at night. Similarly, generated during the cool summer night up in the floor slab and the load-bearing walls, keeping the house cool during the day. The roof garden high thermal inertia, reinforces this process.
4. Transfer systems (heat or cool).
The heat generated by natural radiation emissions and is distributed in the form of hot air throughout the house via the central staircase. Similarly, the heat stored in the load-bearing walls is transmitted to the radiation side rooms.
On the other hand, the cool air generated in the underground galleries are spread over housing through a set of grids spread over the slab of the house. This air flow cools every room of the house.
5. Natural ventilation
The ventilation of the building is continuously and naturally through the very walls of enclosures, allowing adequate ventilation without energy loss. This type of ventilation is possible because all materials are breathable (ceramic, natural insulation, concrete panels, wood-cement panels, eco-friendly paints).
6. Constructive memory. Ecological components
Wood paneling, bamboo paneling, silk screened glass panels, ECO, mosaic wall panels, acrylic, ceramic tiles, marble tiles and GEA ecological paints.
2. Distribution elements
Wood panels, glass panels (bathrooms) and ceramic walls.
Ventilated facade walls based on ceramic and wood-cement panels.
Isolation of tissue-based natural hemp and recycled tissue paper towels made of aircraft.
Mortars organic monolayer. Stucco. Ipe wood treatment salt and Borax lasurses based finishes.
White marble tiles and slate black.
5. Interior Paints
GEA ecological paints with solvent water, without biocides, organic pigments and higher CPV. Stucco based on lime green.
Insulation made of recycled tissue paper airplanes. Wool insulation and hemp.
7. Exterior coatings on windows and sunshades
Mortars organic monolayer. Stucco. IPE wood treatment salt and Borax lasurses based finishes.
8. Exterior carpentry
Joinery brown laminate and Iroko wood and Ipe.
Double glazing (6-10-4) with air chamber.
Insulated roof garden based on wood fiber (8 cm.) Waterproof sheet, filter sheet synthetic fibers woven geotextile drainage layer and plant substrate (40% sand, 60% vegetable waste).
Pitched roof sandwich panel based panels based Coretech (recycling of automotive fabrics), and Styrodur-C.
11. Auctions and flashing
12. Green roof garden
Mediterranean plants with low irrigation needs (sedum, dune grass, rosemary, thyme, ...).
13. Outdoor garden
Mediterranean native plant species with low need for watering (lavender, palm, rosemary, thyme, ...).
Exclusively based lighting LEDs.
15. Installation of plumbing
Polypropylene pipes. Use of water saving devices. Reverse Osmosis System (three membranes) purification and naturalization of recycled water. The system provides mineral water mineral content controlled by computer, according to user preferences.
16. Installation of sanitation
Polyethylene pipes. System of accumulation and filtering gray water and rainwater. The resulting water used for watering the garden and roof garden. In addition, this water through the purification system is fit for human consumption.
Polypropylene pipes and cables free of halides. Multimedia home automation control system that regulates all housing devices to minimize power consumption, and provide different scenarios for the use of the dwelling.
18. Solar thermal system
Thermosyphon solar thermal captors for the generation of ACS
19. Electric radiators
Radiators and electric accumulators covered with natural stones (marble, granite, slate) to increase the thermal inertia of the whole.
20. Geothermal system
Geothermal system (with one pilot drilling) heat pump (heating supplement and soda).
21. Kitchen cabinets and appliances
Furniture made out of plywood panels, formaldehyde-free, with natural wood veneer glued with white glue. Above ECO. Energy-efficient appliances.
Furniture made out of plywood panels, formaldehyde-free, with natural wood veneer glued with white glue. Wood treated with wood stains and lacquers to water.
23. Beds and linen
Beds with mattresses wooden slats that conform to the shape of the spine. Natural wool mattresses. Duvets and natural wool. Linen sheets.
24. Toilets and Faucets
Taps on tap water consumption and electronics. Toilets for easy cleaning.
7. Highlights Innovations in GAIA-1
Housing is self-sustaining water. That is, does not connect to the systems of municipal water supply (though it connected to the network of "water" in order to have an alternative source of water, if necessary).
The water required for human consumption for human health, and irrigation of green areas is obtained from several complementary sources: 1. Ground water. The property has several probes to extract water from underground aquifers. The water thus obtained is filtered and purified to become unfit for human consumption. 2. Rainwater. Rainwater that falls on the building is collected and stored in a tank of 7,000 liters perimeter. The water is filtered and purified to become unfit for human consumption. 3. Recycling greywater. Greywater generated by the filter housing and stored in warehouses located for this purpose. The water thus obtained is filtered and purified to become unfit for human consumption.
Integrated waste disposal
The house was built without generating waste, as the few waste generated have been used in building it. On the other hand, the organic waste generated during the use of the property is managed optimally and are used to make "compost" to serve as fertilizer for the surrounding gardens. On the other hand, properly treated sewage, and are also used for payment of these orchards.
- LED-based lighting
All luminaires housing are based on LEDs. This is achieved lighting energy savings of 90% compared to a conventional home.
- High level bioclimatic.
Due to its excellent architectural design bioclimatic housing does not need air conditioning systems in summer (although the outside temperature could exceed 40 degrees), and for winter only need an electric heating system. As a result, consumes very little power house. In fact consumes only 25% of the energy of a conventional house of the same surface.
- Use of electric heating
Due to refined bioclimatic housing design, the energy cost is very low, despite using only electricity.
GAIA-1 shows that electricity is the cheapest energy and environmentally friendly available. Similarly, it actually increases the "quality" of power, and that makes 4 times more effective.
On the other hand, electric heating is the safest of all, and do not need expensive boilers or infrastructure. The two batteries and 4 housing electric heaters have cost 1,200 euros. A gas system (or similar) would have cost over 9,000 euros. Therefore, an additional advantage for electric heating.
Finally, systems for gas, biomass, fuel, .... Need a dedicated floor area (the boiler room, etc ...) that at least occupies about 5 m2. At the average price of construction, this implies a cost of about 6,000 euros. Of course, electric heat does not need the dedicated space, so it turns out to be much more economical, ecological, economical and reliable.
- De-humidification system and refreshment bioclimatic
To cool the house in summer has just used a system of de-wetting "Peltier effect", very low power consumption. The housing blocks have a good bioclimatic behavior, and in summer remain around 24-25 º C. However, as the humidity is high, it is possible to lower the humidity level inside the house using a simple de-humidifier, and very low power consumption. This will improve the comfort level of occupants, without the need for mechanical air conditioning systems.
Green roof with native species
The green roof garden is designed on the basis of indigenous plant species in the Valencian Community, with little water consumption: Laurel, lavender, myrtle, palmetto, ivy, oak, oleander, Cork, trailing arbutus and thyme
The housing cover symbolizes and shows how any site can be built with a 100% occupancy and at the same time ensuring a 100% green area.
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