Symbol of Sustainable Architecture
ANAVIF, Construmat 2009
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1. Most Important Goals
- The most important objective of this project is a symbol of Sustainable Architecture. Luis de Garrido had entered for nearly 20 years its own basic principles and a general paradigm of sustainable architecture, and had applied in numerous projects, tofu type. As a result, each project had a different structure (how could it be otherwise), differentiated according to their environment. So, Luis De Garrido wanted to make an iconic building, a building that could represent a model of sustainable architecture. A building that could be adapted to any setting and formal structure of which no one could forget. This Luis de Garrido investigated the most abundant in nature, and summarized in a single building, with a simple formal structure.
- Obviously, if the goal is to perform a benchmark for sustainable architecture, the building must have the highest possible degree of integration with nature. In fact, according to Luis De Garrido, this building fully embodies the concept that it has created, called "Artificial Nature". So, Luis de Garrido wanted to make a building whose degree of sustainability could not be overcome. Therefore, this building should have (and have) the following characteristics:
- Self-sufficiency in energy.
The building should consume the least amount of energy and this energy must generate the same (of the earth and the sun).
- Self-sufficiency of water.
The building should consume the least amount of water, and also get on their own, both of nature (rain water and groundwater), and their own waste (black water and gray).
- Food self-sufficiency
The building, by its own structure and its environment must allow the cultivation of vegetables to feed their occupants, and livestock needs. This should allow basic food self-sufficiency at a time.
- Infinite life cycle
The building must be designed and constructed the elements separately, can be easily removable, repairable, reusable, recyclable, replaceable to ensure you can remain standing indefinitely.
- Readily biodegradable
Although the building has an infinite life cycle, each component must be easily biodegradable, so that if you decide to dispense with any component, it can be easily assimilated by nature.
- High efficiency and high bioclimatic
The building should have the lowest possible energy consumption, only for its architectural design.
- Elimination of waste and emissions
The construction and use of the building must generate the least amount of waste. And it can generate should be treated and reused in the building. On the other hand, the building should not generate any emissions.
- Industrialisation total
All building components must be made at the factory.
All building components must be assembled and disassembled easily and indefinitely. As a result, these elements can be transported anywhere, to be easily mounted as many times as necessary.
- Low price
The building should have a lower cost than usual, and should have the least possible need for maintenance.
- Health and Quality of Life
The building must ensure the welfare, quality of life and health of its occupants
- Use architecture of the vegetation in any component architecture (outdoor, indoor, interior walls, exterior walls and roof).
- Integration with the ground cover. The sloping green roof allows the building to be perceived as an extension of the ground. Thus, the occupants of the home can easily use the deck, running on a simple walk. Therefore, this architectural structure must allow to be built on land with a 100% occupancy and at the same time, ensure a 100% green area.
2. Architectural Solution
The house has a very unique architectural structure. A sloping garden leaves an open space below it, where housing is located. In the center stands a triangular tower with a vertical garden. The tower forms the central courtyard, which acts as a chimney effect to draw hot air from the house.
The house has a completely flexible architectural structure. The interior is completely transparent, and allows any type of compartmentalization. Thus the home can become offices, residences, apartments, museum, exhibition hall, etc .... Similarly, can be expanded, reduced or modified easily, and without work, no waste.
The sloping roof is an extension of the ground, so the space that forms has a different height. The geothermal system machinery, boilers and heat exchangers are located in areas with lower height. In contrast, in higher spaces are located the rooms of the house. In the center of the house is located a covered patio, shaped tower with a vertical garden.
Because of its advanced features are built GREEN BOX in just 15 days in the city of Barcelona. Was removed in 7 days, and moved to Toledo, where he remounted.
3. Sustainable Analysis
1. Resource Optimization
1.1. Natural Resources. They take full advantage of resources such as the sun (to generate hot water, and provide natural lighting throughout the interior of the house), the breeze, the land (to cool the house), rainwater (water tanks reserve for garden irrigation and consumption), vegetation (insulation, coatings, vertical gardens and green roof) ... .. On the other hand, we have installed water saving devices in faucets, showers and tanks housing and treatment systems and naturalization of gray water and rainwater for mineral water suitable for consumption.
1.2. Resources made. All materials used are maximized to manufacture building components, reducing potential waste through proper project and effective management.
1.3. Resources recovered, reused and recycled.
All building components have been designed to be recoverable, repairable, reusable, without exception. This will be repaired and can be reused indefinitely. When the cost of reuse and recycling is significant, the components can be easily biodegradable, and recycled by nature, without assuming environmental impact.
2. Reduced energy consumption
The house was built with minimum energy consumption through a fully industrialized process (in fact only has required a team of 5 editors). The materials used were manufactured with a minimum amount of energy. All materials have been chosen for their low power consumption. Moreover, as all components are prefabricated, has declined the most energy needed.
Due to their bioclimatic characteristics, the home has a very low power consumption. In addition, low energy requirement is obtained from renewable natural sources.
The house is heated by the greenhouse effect, heat emitted by the occupants and, just possibly, through a system of geothermal heat pump. Hot water is generated through the solar thermal sensors built into the south face of the whole. The electricity for the geothermal system and appliances is provided by photovoltaic captors.
The house is cooled by a geothermal underground architectural system, and needs no mechanical conditioning system, so no energy.
That is, the house is energy self-sufficient.
All components used can easily recover, repair and reuse again. When the components have a high level of impairment can be recycled and re-attached. So indefinitely. The dismantling is simple and consumes very little power, since there is only to remove the pieces one by one in reverse order has been placed in the assembly.
3. Use of alternative energy sources
The energy used is of two types: solar thermal (solar captors to produce the ACS), solar photovoltaic, and geothermal energy (geothermal system for heat pump, and architectural system to cool the air, taking advantage of existing low temperatures underground, in the tunnels underneath the house).
4. Reduction of waste and emissions
The property does not generate any emissions, nor generate any waste, except human waste, used to make "compost" for the orchard and gardens of the house.
5. Improving health and wellbeing
All materials used are environmentally friendly and healthy and have no emissions that can affect human health. Similarly, the house is naturally ventilated, and maximizing natural lighting, creating a healthy environment and provides the best possible quality of life for its occupants.
6. Reduced price of the building and maintenance
The house has been designed in a rational way, and all its components are industrialized, eliminating unnecessary items, unnecessary or gratuitous, allowing construction to a greatly reduced price, despite its characteristics of self-sufficiency of water and energy. Its construction costs half of a conventional house (about 550 per m2), so it can become a constructive model for the new social and economic system.
Similarly, housing is almost maintenance: regular cleaning, and treatment of wood biennial vegetable oils.
4. Bioclimatic Characteristics
1.1. Heat Generation Systems
The house is heated by itself, in two ways: 1. Avoiding cool: Due to its high thermal insulation, and having large glass surfaces just to the south. 2. Due to its careful and special bioclimatic design, and perfect NS orientation, housing is heated by the greenhouse effect, direct sunlight, heating and geothermal heat pump, and remains hot for a long time, due to its high thermal inertia.
1.2. Fresh Generation Systems
The house cools itself in three ways: 1. Avoiding heat, providing most of the glass surface just to the south and west providing sun protection for the direct and indirect solar radiation (a type of protection different for each of the holes with different orientation), and providing isolation appropriate. 2. Cooling through a cooling system architecture of air through underground galleries. On the other hand, due to high thermal inertia of the building, the accumulated fresh overnight stays for nearly all the next day. 3. Evacuating the hot air outside the home, through the upper windows of the central covered courtyard. The slant of the roof enhances the natural convection and provides an effective "chimney effect" to extract the hot air inside the house.
On the other hand, the great central tower is covered with cement paneling. When heated these panels the effect of solar radiation, heats the air inside. The hot air rises and escapes this through the holes of the panels. This current generates a suction that pulls heated air of the house. Thus, the house is kept cool at all times.
3. Storage systems (heat or cool)
The heat generated during the day in winter accumulates on the floor slab and the concrete load-bearing walls, keeping the house warm at night. Similarly, generated during the cool summer night up in the floor slab and the load-bearing walls, keeping the house cool during the day. The roof garden high thermal inertia, reinforces this process.
4. Transfer systems (heat or cool).
The heat generated by natural radiation emissions and is distributed in the form of hot air through the building from the Central Conservatory. Similarly, the system of floor heating runs throughout the house. The heat accumulated in the load-bearing walls is transmitted to the radiation side rooms.
The cool air generated in the underground galleries are spread over housing through a set of grids spread over the slab of the house. This air flow cools every room of the house.
5. Natural ventilation
The ventilation of the building is continuously and naturally through the very walls of enclosures, allowing adequate ventilation without energy loss. This type of ventilation is possible because all materials are breathable (ceramic, natural insulation, concrete panels, wood-cement panels, organic paints).
5. Constructive memory. Ecological components
Precast concrete panels.
2. Horizontal structure
Prefabricated reinforced concrete panels, assembled together by means of metal screw would outline.
Would outline bolted metal.
Wood panels, Panelate, polycarbonate panels, eco, methacrylate, and GEA ecological paints.
4. Distribution elements
Polycarbonate, acrylic, and reinforced concrete.
Ventilated facade based on extruded ceramic tiles, metal profiles subject by folded sheet. Facade insulation recycled paper towels made from aircraft, and plastic bottles.
Green Parquet oil treated with FSC wood. Panels echo.
GEA ecological paints with solvent water, without biocides, organic pigments and high cpv.
Insulation made of recycled tissue paper airplanes, and plastic bottles. Sheep wool insulation, hemp and wood fiber.
9. Exterior coatings on windows and sunshades
Ipe wood treatment salt Borax based finishes and wood stains.
10. Exterior carpentry
Laminated woodwork brown.
Double glazing (6-10-4) with air chamber.
Insulated roof garden based on wood fiber (8 cm.) Sopralene waterproof sheet, filter sheet synthetic fibers woven geotextile drainage layer and plant substrate (40% sand, 60% vegetable waste).
13. Auctions and flashing
Galvanised lacquered red.
14. Structure of the vertical garden
Lattice panels 50 * 50 cm. removable to accommodate vegetation and hydroponic irrigation system.
15. Vertical Garden
Plant species adapted to the Mediterranean, with irrigation hydroponics.
16. Sloping garden (garden deck)
Native plant species in the Mediterranean, without watering (lavender, rosemary, thyme, ...).
Luminaries shall be used exclusively based LEDs.
18. Installation of plumbing
19. Installation of sanitation
Polypropylene pipes and cables free of halides.
21. Thermal solar system
Solar thermal captors generation ACS
22. Solar boilers and underfloor heating
Condensing boilers and high efficiency solar captors.
23. Geothermal system
Geothermal system by piloting integrated solar system and condensing boilers.
6. Most important innovations
The property has several biological orchards, which provide basic food for the occupants. The Mediterranean climate allows several crops a year of cereals, legumes, fruits and vegetables. And the arable land is more than enough to feed the occupants of the house and small farm animals you have.
Housing is self-sustaining water. That is, does not connect to the systems of municipal water supply (though it connected to the network of "water" in order to have an alternative source of water, if necessary).
The water required for human consumption for human health, and irrigation of green areas is obtained from several complementary sources: 1. Ground water. The property has several probes to extract water from underground aquifers. The water thus obtained is filtered and purified to become unfit for human consumption. 2. Rainwater. Rainwater that falls on the building is collected and stored in a tank of 7,000 liters perimeter. The water is filtered and purified to become unfit for human consumption. 3. Recycling greywater. Greywater generated by the filter housing and stored in warehouses located for this purpose. The water thus obtained is filtered and purified to become unfit for human consumption.
The home is energy self-sufficient. That is, not connected to the systems of municipal electricity.
GREEN BOX is heated in winter by the combination of 3 different systems:
1. Right bioclimatic design
2. Adding a solar thermal system sensors
(For hot water and underfloor heating)
3. Incorporation of an inexpensive and ingenious architectural system of geothermal energy.
Similarly, GREEN BOX cool in summer by the combination of 2 different systems:
1. Right bioclimatic design
2. Incorporation of an inexpensive and ingenious architectural system of geothermal energy.
The extraordinarily low consumption lighting (LEDs) and energy-efficient appliances, are powered by electricity generated by photovoltaic captors.
The energy required for underfloor heating and hot water comes from the combination of a geothermal system and a solar system. It is not necessary to use any other system, or connection to the mains. GREEN BOX is a self-sufficient building.
Absolute elimination of waste
GREEN BOX components have been made in the factory, without generating any residue. Similarly, without generating waste mounts and dismounts without generating waste. The key achievements are: absolute industrialization, the design of assembly systems, and the system composition used in the architectural design
On the other hand, the organic waste generated during the use of the property is managed optimally and are used to make "compost" to serve as fertilizer for the sloping roof and surrounding gardens. On the other hand, properly treated sewage, and are also used for payment of these orchards.
Infinite life cycle
All components of GREEN BOX are designed to be mounted on base tronillos dry, nails and pressure. This can be easily removed from the building to be repaired, reused or returned. Thus, the building can last indefinitely, with very low power consumption.
Portability. On separate pieces
The set of elements of GREEN BOX (even the garden and the garden sloped vertical) has been designed so it can be assembled and disassembled easily and indefinitely. For this reason, these elements can be transported anywhere, to be easily mounted (less than a week) as many times as necessary.
By design, GREEN BOX can be expanded, reduced, or even adopt other types of architectural configuration. Similarly, the interior of GREEN BOX is open plan and has been designed to take any possible distribution of spatial partitioning and reconfiguration.
All components of GREEN BOX have been made in different factories. These components have been assembled in the building's location, giving the building. Not a single component has been made "in situ". Of course, this requires making a good architectural design.
High degree of bioclimatic
GREEN BOX has been designed to have the best possible bioclimatic behavior. This means that the building is heated to the maximum, by itself, in winter and cool to the max, by itself, in the summer. All this, without artifacts. Simply because of its architectural design and no extra cost.
Double vertical garden (on both sides of a wall)
It is the first case of vertical garden on both sides of a wall. Apart from the formal appeal, the system provides a perfect balance between insulation, thermal inertia, breathability, oxygenation, and lighting. In fact it is a first step in how to handle living plant elements such as wraparound architectural and structural architectural elements of composition.
Vertical Garden transportable modular detachable
The double vertical garden was built with cellular polyethylene panels, bolted to a metal frame supporting. Thus, each panel can be composed vegetable separately in the greenhouse (to control the design and stimulate the growth of plant species), and move into the building when necessary (and grown plants). Similarly, each panel can be extracted from building plant, in order to move it, repaired and reused as many times as desired.
Native garden design garden deck
The green roof garden is designed on the basis of indigenous plant species, with little water consumption. The garden design is inspired by the eternal struggle between the Tiger and the Dragon. The balance between Yin and Yang, symbolizing human activity on Earth. A nod to symbolize the desire to GREEN BOX to offer a sensible way to get another architecture. An architecture that permits a balance between living beings and the balance of living with the planet.
Cover design sloping landscaped as a continuation of the surrounding soil (100% construction - 100% green area)
One of the objectives in the design of GREEN BOX housing is to provide a roof garden passable, as a continuity with the ground. It is therefore projected a roof garden with 12 ° tilt that extends to ground level. In this way, walkers can walk comfortably, and access to the end of the deck. That is, GREEN BOX allows a site to be built with a 100% occupancy and at the same time, ensure a 100% green area.
All interior finishes are reversible GREEN BOX. That is, you can remove, replace recover and easily. All finishes are assembled by pressure, or with screws. This will be repaired and replaced easily. This concept extends even to the bathroom fittings and kitchen, toilets and kitchen furniture.
The interior is inspired by the 12 zodiac signs in Europe and the 12 animals of Chinese zodiac. A nod to symbolize the desired balance with the Earth and the Cosmos, to be achieved with this prototype. Zodiac signs are illustrated through backlit holes in interior walls. The light golden finish, contrasting with the blue color of the inner sky, creating a dreamy, mystic, inviting meditation and reflection. A perfect setting for the exhibition "Artificial Nature VI".
Use of new organic products
In the construction of GREEN BOX have been used recently new organic products manufacturing, and highly innovative (insulating towels recycling airplanes insulating glasses recycling, recycling insulating glass bottles, glass recycling ECO panels, screws, scrap, ....; Panelate; polycarbonate extrusion, Panelate, GEA ecological paints, etc ... ..
Transportable structure, based on concrete panels and metal profiles
The construction system used in GREEN BOX on the basis of structural elements bolted (concrete panels, metal profiles) allows portability, no need for special transportation.
The very foundation of the prototype was performed using two levels of reinforced concrete slabs. The reinforced concrete slabs are joined together by bolted metal would outline. This will achieve two things. First, the creation of an underground air chamber that allows air ventilation cooling in summer (and heating of ventilation air in winter). Second, it allows that if you decide to remove the building and move to another place, there was no trace of its construction, as even the foundations can be transported. A 100% sustainable building, which leaves no trace.
The construction system employed allows the reduction to 50% of construction costs. This makes building a model for the new social and economic order in the next years.
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