SAYAB ECO-HOUSING COMPLEX
(Natural Source of Life in Mayan language)
Gratamira. Cali. Colombia
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1. Most Important Goals
- Designing buildings with infinite life. That is, a set composed of buildings of architectural components assembled so that all can be recovered, repaired, reused, or replaced with ease. Thus, the buildings can be preserved forever, reduce, enlarge, update, or add new architectural elements in the future.
- Project a collection of buildings with a composite structure based on modular laminar, which are assembled on site by simply small welds. Despite being an isostatic structure, and have a very limited capacity to absorb perfect fixed-end moments at the nodes, behaves perfectly, particularly due to its interlocking design. Thus, it can meet all kinds of external actions vertical, horizontal and random (it has a perfect performance against earthquakes).
- Projecting a removable structure, based on lightweight concrete elements. These items are made in the factory, they are easily transportable (no need for special transportation), and assembled on site with ease, despite its weight.
- Achieving a perfect balance between the need to give the building a large thermal mass, and the desire to recover and reuse every one of its components. Therefore, we have chosen a structural system based on lightweight concrete slabs, oversized. These plates are joined together by bolts and welds in metallic elements embedded and twinned in the concrete mass of each architectural element.
- Propose a housing type layer 4 (social housing in Spain), high ecological, bioclimatic and high level, at market prices.
- Suggest two types of flexible housing that can reconfigure and adapt constantly to the needs of its occupants.
- Make a block of flats proposed bioclimatic tropical climates with high cooling capacity for self-only due to its architectural design, mechanical systems without conditioning.
- Achieve 50% more surface area of parkland, the solar surface. Arrange the green areas in different parts of the blocks of houses (in the inner courtyard, patios at different heights, and the roof gardens).
- Have the parking integrated into the building, so that cars go unnoticed in the complex.
- Provide the complex of three levels of security. The first level consists of perimeter protection and the two goals of the whole. The second level access to each of the blocks. The third level is access to each home. There is a large area of parkland within each block and on rooftops, and therefore, offer a high level of security for residents to enjoy them in peace.
- Perform a complex of buildings as healthy as possible, providing them with natural lighting and ventilation (the houses do not need air conditioning, and while there is sunlight, artificial lighting is not needed).
- Use only ecological and healthy materials (materials used are free from any kind of emissions).
2. Architectural Solution
The site allows to build a very high built, and housing is designed to layer 4 in Colombia (Social housing in Spain). In all, want to build 345 homes, two basic types: single-storey houses (with a floor area of approximately 70 m2) and two-storey houses (with a floor area of approximately 100 m2).
To maximize the allowable floor area, and minimize the impact of the price of the land in housing construction has been concentrated in 4 blocks, oriented EW. Each of these blocks is formed, in turn, by the union of two linear blocks, separated by a covered patio. This ensures that the sunlight can not penetrate inside the housing, and therefore do not overheat by the greenhouse effect.
Each block has two vertical communication centers, and access to the various houses are made through galleries perimeter around the central courtyard covered.
The blocks have an architectural structure of great simplicity, in order to minimize costs, and make the most of the process of prefabricated components. Despite this supposed simplicity, no two homes the same throughout the complex, the facades are all different from each other, and therefore, all the houses have balconies different. To emphasize this difference, and differentiate it from the simplicity of the blocks, the balconies have been tinted with different colors.
The blocks are perforated in several places of the facade, as a covered patio at different heights, which provide transparency to the whole. In addition, these courts generate a fresh set of microclimates in the building, and enhance neighborly relations and coexistence (sky courts). The interior of the blocks creates and maintains a large bag of fresh air that will cover all homes, refreshing in its path.
The residential complex has 4 types of green areas, located in different places outside the blocks, patio blocks, perimeter courtyards between houses, and decks of the blocks.
The homes are flexible and allow different architectural structures to meet the particular needs of each potential occupant.
3. Sustainable Analysis
1. Resource Optimization
1.1. Natural Resources. They take full advantage of resources such as sun, wind, earth (to cool the building), rain water (stored in underground tanks and used to irrigate the gardens), ... .. On the other hand, has installed water saving devices on taps, showers and flush toilets.
1.2. Resources made. The materials used are maximized, reducing potential waste through proper project, effective management, and above all, because each component of the building has been individually built at the factory.
1.3. Resources recovered, reused and recycled.
All building materials may be recoverable, including all elements of the structure. Thus, can be easily repaired, and reused in the mime building, or in any other. On the other hand, has promoted the use of recycled and recyclable materials.
2. Decreased energy consumption
The building has been constructed with minimal energy consumption. The materials used were manufactured with a minimum amount of energy, since all components are factory, with complete control. On the other hand, the building is constructed with very few assistive devices, being fully industrialized.
Due to its characteristics bioclimate policies, the building has a very low power consumption (it is estimated that households consume only 20% of what they consume conventional dwellings with an area similar). It should be noted that the houses do not need artificial light while there is sun, and the lighting of public areas is based on LEDs.
The vast majority of materials used can be recovered easily. On the other hand, the building is designed to have indefinite durability, since all the building components are easily recoverable, repairable and replaceable.
3. Using alternative energy sources
The energy used to cool the air in the courtyard is geothermal source (fresh air system taking advantage of low temperatures existing underground, in the galleries below the floor slab of the building). It has no energy.
4. Reduced waste and emissions
The building does not generate any emissions, and does not generate any waste other than organic.
5. Improving health and wellbeing
All materials used are environmentally friendly and healthy and have no emissions that can affect human health. Similarly, the building is naturally ventilated, and maximizing natural light, creating a healthy environment and provides the best possible quality of life for its occupants.
6. Reduced price of the building and maintenance
The building was designed in a rational way, removing unnecessary items, unnecessary or gratuitous, allowing construction to a conventional price, despite the ecological equipment includes.
4. Bioclimatic characteristics
1. Fresh Generation Systems
The building itself is cool, in three ways:
1.1. Avoiding hot. The building complex is located near the Ecuador, and tropical climate. Thus, we have provided all the windows facing north and south (no east and west windows to keep out direct sunlight in the mornings and evenings). All have balconies, overhangs and extends north and south, to protect windows from direct sunlight. Finally, all facade walls have high thermal insulation.
1.2. Cooling. Through a system of architectural cooling air using a series of underground galleries. Air enters under the side overhangs the north and south (protected from rain and sun) to a labyrinthine set of galleries inside the building, where it cools considerably. Once cooled, the air enters the shaded patio, where it is kept cool through all the houses. On the other hand, due to high thermal inertia of the building, the accumulated fresh overnight stays for almost the entire next day.
1.3. Evacuating the hot air outside the building. Through a set of solar chimneys located on the top of the central courtyard covered.
3. Cool storage systems
The fresh generated during the night (for natural ventilation and outside due to lower temperature) is accumulated in the floors and interior bearing walls of high thermal inertia. Thus, the building remains cool throughout the day without any energy consumption.
The roof garden (about 25 cm. Of land) high thermal inertia, as well as adequate isolation, helps maintain stable temperatures inside the building in winter and summer.
4. Transfer systems of fresh air
Solar chimneys suck the air inside the central courtyard of the blocks. This creates a rising air currents that force the cool air of the interior courtyard surrounding scroll all homes.
5. Natural ventilation
The fan housing is made of natural and continuing through the grilles and gates over doors inside the house. Similarly, the house breathes through the exterior walls, allowing natural ventilation without energy loss.
5. Eco-friendly materials
1. Foundations and structure.
The structure is composed of an interlocking set of reinforced concrete slabs, as a structural system of walls. The prefabricated reinforced concrete plates with a thickness of 8 cm. on the walls, and 12 cm. in the slabs.
The outer walls of the east and west are composed of two sheets and insulation. The inner leaf corresponds to the load-bearing walls of reinforced concrete 8 cm. thickness (with high thermal inertia). The outer sheet is composed of cellulose gypsum board water resistant. Inside there is a double sheet of hemp insulation layer of 5 cm. and a ventilated air space of 3 cm. The north and south facades are composed of single-layer walls, based on concrete blocks, filled with insulation (discarded bags of coffee).
2. Exterior finishes
3. Interior finishes
Paintings vegetables. Porcelain tile floorings. Double panel doors chipboard, veneered beech, and treated with vegetable oils. Bamboo railings.
The roof garden has an average thickness of 25 cm. of land.
Polypropylene water pipes. Polyethylene drainage pipes. Energy-efficient appliances. Pine woodwork treated with vegetable oils.
6. Highlights Innovations
- Building system that achieves a building with an indefinite life cycle.
- 100% industrialized construction system in which all building components can be recovered, repaired and reused indefinitely.
- Construction process that allows buildings without generating little waste.
- System for building prefabricated housing green, low price.
- System refresh the air, through galleries around the perimeter.
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