Luis Garcia and Maria Gimenez
El Vedat. Torrent. Valencia
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1. Most Important Goals
- Making high-level sustainable rehabilitation of an existing home.
- Designing a home for it to be self-constructed (ie, built by their owners).
- Provide a high level of industrialization and prefabrication, which also allows the self.
- Demonstrate that a suitable project can greatly increase the bioclimatic performance of a building, no matter how adverse the circumstances of the project. (In this case, the planning regulations of the zone is not allowed to build outside the existing perimeter of the existing building.
2. Architectural Solution
It is rehabilitating a home built in a protected area of high ecological value. The planning regulations can not build outside the existing perimeter of the building, and only enables the rehabilitation of the building.
The existing building was built with load-bearing walls of 12 cm. thick, made of ceramic bricks. The condition was lamentable, and no worse than the architectural structure and distribution of spaces.
Therefore, it was decided to "build a building within a building." That is, it has left intact the existing perimeter load bearing wall, and has been used as a road outside the new structure. That is, rather than rehabilitate housing, has built a new one, preserving the shape's perimeter before.
Therefore, and given that the building wanted to be built in large part by homeowners, has chosen to make the new structure supporting the building blocks based Ytong. Aerated concrete blocks of extremely light weight, large size and easy handling (you can cut with a hacksaw.)
The architectural structure of the new building, in addition to complying with the program owners, allows perfect operation bioclimatic housing, and integrates perfectly into the perimeter of the envelope is preserved architecture.
3. Sustainable Analysis
1. Resource Optimization
1.1. Natural Resources. Are maximized resources such as sunlight (for home heating), the wind, water and earth (to cool the housing), rain water (stored in subterranean tanks and used for watering the garden, and to flush toilets), ... .. On the other hand, we have installed water saving devices on taps, showers and tanks.
1.2. Manufactured resources. The materials used are maximized, thus preventing any waste through proper project and effective management. On the other hand, the structure of the house has been made out of precast concrete cell blocks of different sizes, allowing for maximum optimization of resources at the factory. These same blocks can be easily handled on site, allowing a perfect adaptability to the possible vicissitudes of works. This does not generate waste, and maximizes the material.
1.3. Resources recovered, reused and recycled.
The vast majority of housing materials may be recoverable (structure, walls, woodwork, glass, wood beams, girders, walkways, stairs, cabinets, wood coatings, sunscreens, health ...).
On the other hand, has promoted the use of recycled and recyclable materials such as polypropylene water pipes, drain pipes of polyethylene, chipboard OSB for interior doors, plywood panels for coatings, recycled glass countertops the kitchen, floors, stairs and windows, etc ...
Finally, it has made extensive use of recovered materials (waste) and recycled materials, such as wooden beams, furniture, flooring and accessories.
2. Decreased energy consumption
The house was built with minimal energy consumption. The vast majority of industrialized materials are prefabricated, so we have used a minimum amount of energy. Moreover, housing has been built by the owners themselves, without the use of assistive devices only.
Due to its characteristics bioclimatic housing has a very low energy consumption standard. The house is heated by the greenhouse effect and electric accumulators nightly rate. The hot water is generated by two thermal solar collectors. The house is cooled by geothermal systems architecture and requires no mechanical conditioning systems, so it does not consume energy for cooling.
The fact that the house is fully insulated bioclimatic and makes electric heat is the best option. When using the night rate, the economic cost is reduced by half. Being a bioclimatic house, back down to more than half. And there are costs deduct what the conventional heating facilities, plus the cost of the floor area required.
The vast majority of materials used can be recovered easily (once the life of the building) to be reused in the construction of another building (structure, roof, beams, visors, gateway, staircase, ceramic tiles, windows, shutters, doors ..). On the other hand, housing is designed to have a very high durability, and all housing components are very durable and easily repairable.
3. Using alternative energy sources
The energy used is of two types: Solar Thermal (two solar collectors for the ACS, and evaporation of water to air cooling) and geothermal (air refresher system taking advantage of existing low temperatures several feet below ground, in galleries below the suspended floor of the house).
4. Reduction of waste and emissions
Housing does not generate any emissions and does not generate any waste, except organic. Some of these household waste are used again for treating accordingly (gray water for watering the garden). On the other hand, during the construction of the house just waste were generated.
5. Improving health and wellbeing
All materials used are environmentally friendly and healthy, and do not have any programs that might affect human health. Similarly, the house is naturally ventilated, and maximizing natural light, creating a healthy environment and provides the best possible quality of life for building occupants.
6. Reduced price of the building and maintenance
The house has been designed rationally, and are eliminating redundant items, unnecessary, or free, allowing construction at a reduced price, despite incorporating environmental equipment. Moreover, housing has been designed for its users to easily build, so the price has been reduced to a minimum compared with other conventional buildings.
4. Bioclimatic characteristics
1.1. Heat Generation Systems
The house is heated by itself, in two ways: 1. Avoiding cool: Due to its high thermal insulation, and having most of the glass surface to the south. 2. Because of his careful and special bioclimatic design, the home is partially heated greenhouse, solar radiation and electric batteries to your nightly rate.
1.2. Fresh Generation Systems
Housing cools itself in three ways: 1. Avoiding hot, providing the bulk of the glass surface to the south and just east and west, providing sun protection for the direct and indirect solar radiation (a type of protection different for each of the holes with different orientation), and providing adequate insulation. 2. Cooling by a cooling air architecture by means of underground galleries. On the other hand, due to high thermal inertia of the building, the accumulated fresh overnight stays for nearly all the next day. 3. Evacuating the hot air outside the housing through the upper windows of the central hall on the first floor.
3. Storage systems (heat or cool)
The heat generated during the day in winter (greenhouse gases and solar radiation, and electrical batteries) accumulates in the floors and interior load-bearing walls of high thermal inertia. Thus the house stays warm all night, with little energy.
Generated during the cool summer night (for natural ventilation and outside due to lower temperature) is accumulated in the floors and interior load-bearing walls of high thermal inertia. Thus the housing remains fresh throughout the day without any energy consumption.
The roof garden (about 25 cm. Of land) of high thermal inertia, in addition to proper isolation, maintaining stable temperatures inside the house, as it remains warm at night and cool during the day.
4. Transfer systems (heat or cool).
The heat generated by the greenhouse effect and natural radiation is distributed in the form of hot air throughout the building from the central zone. Similarly, the heat accumulated in the load-bearing walls is transmitted to the radiation side rooms.
The cool air generated in the underground galleries for the housing is divided by a set of grids spread over the floors. On the other hand, fresh air rises through the central gallery and through all the rooms through the vents Interior doors.
5. Natural ventilation
The ventilation of the building is a continuous and natural, through the very walls surround, allowing adequate ventilation without energy loss. This type of ventilation is possible as all materials are breathable (concrete, hemp insulation, paint silicates), although the whole performance has a completely waterproof.
5. Organic materials
1. Foundation and structure.
Double-leaf walls and insulation. The inner sheet for the load-bearing wall-based modules Ytong cellular concrete blocks of 25 cm. thickness (plates have also been used floor to ceiling "old system" Ytong aerated concrete). The exterior sheet matches the brick wall of the existing building. Inside the double sheet is a layer of hemp insulation 5 cm. Forged base slabs precast concrete Ytong cell.
2. Exterior finishes
Silicate paint. Tongue and groove boards, and ipe wood battens, and dyed with vegetable oils.
3. Interior finishes
Vegetable paintings. Floors of porcelain stoneware tiles. Double panel doors plywood, beech plywood, and treated with vegetable oils.
Roof garden, with an average thickness of 30 cm. ground.
Polypropylene water pipes. Polyethylene drainage pipes. Energy-efficient appliances. Silestone kitchen countertops antibacterial. Walls and floors of high-performance glass (anti-scratch, slip, easy clean, special screen ...). Pine woodwork, stained and treated with vegetable oils. Cotton canvas awnings. Sunscreens Ipe solid wood, treated with vegetable oils.
6. Outstanding innovations
- Building system with industrialized and prefabricated structure that allows the self, with a high sustainable level.
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