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1. Most Important Goals
- Designing a house buried.
- Designing a home self-sufficient.
- Designing a house with a high degree of industrialization.
- Projecting a high bioclimatic housing, so it stays fresh, even with outside temperatures exceeding 40 º C.
2. Architectural Solution
This is a house located in rural and in a hostile climate. There is hardly any rainfall and temperatures can reach 45 º. So you've decided to build a house buried that, therefore, remain cool and stable temperature. At the same time, we wish that the house warm in winter by itself, without any heating.
It has therefore been integrated housing located on a slope of the ground, so that only have a semicircular facade (integrating three greenhouses double skin of glass) facing south, providing natural light throughout, despite be buried.
The house has a semicircular shape to join the site chosen, and have a perfect bioclimatic performance. In this sense, the roof garden of the house is integrated and is an extension of the surrounding terrain.
The formal structure of the house represents and reflects the cult surrenders to the use of load-bearing wall in the composition of buildings with high bioclimatic. Wall burden greatly increases the thermal inertia of the building, and is able to store heat or cool, and maintain stable temperature inside the building.
3. Sustainable Analysis
1. Resource Optimization
1.1. Natural Resources. They take full advantage of resources such as the sun (to heat the house), the wind, water and earth (to cool the housing), rain water (for watering the garden and flushing toilets), .... . On the other hand, has installed water saving devices on taps, showers and flush toilets.
1.2. Resources made. The materials used optimally take advantage of avoiding possible waste through proper project, a high level of industrialization and prefabrication (supporting structure prefabricated load-bearing walls of reinforced concrete, precast slabs of reinforced concrete slabs, carpentry wood, paint, ...). On the other hand, proper housing design, based on load-bearing walls and precast slabs, can only be built without assistive devices, and in a short period of time.
1.3. Resources recovered, reused and recycled.
The vast majority of housing materials may be recoverable. On the other hand, has promoted the use of recycled and recyclable materials.
2. Decreased energy consumption
The house is built with minimal energy consumption. The vast majority of the materials used are prefabricated, so has required a minimal amount of energy. On the other hand, housing has been built with little supporting resources, and with very little labor.
Due to its characteristics bioclimatic housing has a very low energy consumption standard. The house is heated by a fireplace emissions and biomass. The hot water is generated by two solar thermal captors. The house is cooled by architectural systems and mechanical systems need upgrading, so no energy to cool.
The vast majority of materials used can be recovered easily (once the life of the building) to be reused in the construction of another building (complete structure, wood beams, ceramic tiles, windows, shutters, railings, doors ..).
3. Using alternative energy sources
The energy used is of two types: solar thermal (solar captors for two ACS, and evaporation of water to air cooling), and geothermal energy (air refresh system taking advantage of low temperature at 2 meters underground in the galleries below the floor slab of the house).
4. Reduced waste and emissions
Housing does not generate any emissions and does not generate any waste, except organic. Some of these household waste are used again to treat them accordingly (gray water for watering the garden). On the other hand, during the construction of the house just waste were generated.
5. Improving health and wellbeing
All materials used are environmentally friendly and healthy and have no emissions that can affect human health. Similarly, the house is naturally ventilated, and maximizes natural light (artificial lighting can not be used as long as natural lighting), which creates a healthy environment and provides the best possible quality of life for building occupants .
6. Reduced price of the building and maintenance
The house has been designed rationally, and most of its components are industrialized, eliminating redundant items, unnecessary or gratuitous, allowing construction to a greatly reduced price, despite the ecological equipment includes. Similarly, housing is almost maintenance: Regular cleaning and treatment of wood biennial vegetable oils.
4. Bioclimatic Characteristics
1.1. Heat Generation Systems
The house is heated by itself in two ways: 1. Avoiding cool: Due to its high thermal insulation, and having most of the glass surface to the south. 2. Because of his careful and special bioclimatic design, and perfect NS orientation, housing is heated by greenhouse gases, sunlight and biomass fireplace. The property has three greenhouses double glass skin.
1.2. Fresh Generation Systems
Housing cools itself in three ways: 1. Avoiding heat, providing most of the glass surface just to the south and west, providing sun protection for the direct and indirect solar radiation, and providing adequate insulation. (It also has had a tarpaulin to protect the unique facade of the house, and the circular courtyard). 2. Cooling by a cooling system architectural air through underground tunnels. There are four courtyards shaded perimeter to housing for the influx of outside air and cools, giving up its heat to the walls aware, due to evaporation of water spray (the humidity is not high, so this system is valid). From the patios, air enters through grilles in the tunnels beneath the floor slab, and re-cooling (giving its heat to the existing labyrinth of walls in these galleries). The air enters the house through vents located strategically in each of their stays. On the other hand, due to high thermal inertia of the building, the accumulated fresh overnight stays for almost the entire next day. The fact that housing is buried enables stays fresh throughout the year. 3. Evacuating the hot air outside the housing through the upper windows of the central courtyard and through two solar chimneys.
3. Storage systems (heat or cool)
The heat generated during the day in winter it accumulates in the floors and load-bearing walls, keeping the house warm during the night. Similarly, the cool night generated during the summer up in the floors and load-bearing walls, keeping the house cool during the day. The roof garden high thermal inertia, reinforces this process.
4. Transfer systems (heat or cool).
The heat generated by natural radiation emissions and is distributed in the form of hot air throughout the building from the Central Conservatory. Similarly, the heat accumulated in the load-bearing walls is transmitted to the radiation side stays.
The cool air generated in the underground galleries for housing is distributed through a set of grids spread over the floors.
5. Natural ventilation
The ventilation of the building is continuously and naturally through the very walls surround, allowing adequate ventilation without energy loss. This type of ventilation is possible because all materials are breathable (concrete, hemp insulation, paint silicates), although the set has a behavior completely waterproof.
5. Eco-friendly materials
1. Foundations and structure.
Two sheets of drywall and insulation. The inner leaf is the load-bearing wall of reinforced concrete 15 cm. thickness (with high thermal inertia). The outer sheet is lightweight precast concrete of 7 cm. and covered with slabs of local stone. Inside there is a double sheet of hemp insulation layer of 5 cm. and a ventilated air space of 3 cm. The floor is made out of prefabricated concrete slabs.
2. Exterior finishes
Silicate paint. Birch plywood treated with vegetable oils.
3. Interior finishes
Paintings vegetables. Polished concrete flooring. Double doors plywood board, beech plywood, and treated with vegetable oils.
Roof garden, with an average thickness of 25 cm. of land.
Polypropylene water pipes. Polyethylene drainage pipes. Energy-efficient appliances. Pine woodwork treated with vegetable oils. Cotton canvas awnings. Shading of solid pine, treated with vegetable oils.
6. Highlights Innovations
- Prefabricated system of structure based on double wall (wall charge and wall covering), which allows total removal of the dwelling in order to facilitate the repair or reuse of all components, including the structure itself.
- Greenhouse glass double-skin
- System refresh patios air through the perimeter.
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