Straw Bale Eco-House
Tue , 11 January 2011 Straw Bale Eco-House
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1. Most Important Goals
- Building a home using straw bales basically, from the collection of waste from wheat crops in the environment. We also want to use adobe bricks using clay from the place, and mulches.
- Building a house completely self-sufficient:
- No need for power
- No need for water supply
- No need for connection to the municipal sewer
- No need to waste collection service
- That the housing provides a good part of the food
necessary for its occupants: Fruits, grains, tubers.
- Designing a self-constructed housing that can be
- Designing a home biodegradable. That is, a house that, when left to stay for some time, at least 80% of its components to biodegrade, and assimilate easily and quickly to the life cycles of nature, without causing any damage. Readily biodegradable materials of the house are straw, adobe, low-density wood, clay, lime paint, lime mortar, terra cotta, Arlita, terracotta tiles at low temperature, fabric, rubber, ...
2. Architectural Solution
Because the home is located in a hostile environment (Nijar, Almería) the architectural structure of the house is closed, and is "dumped" the courtyard. The house only has windows on its outer walls to protect themselves from the hot, sandy winds in the area. Instead, the house opens to the patio with large windows to the south and east, in order to maximize natural lighting.
Around the courtyard stands an organic vegetable garden, fed by greywater from the house, and the compost from organic waste it.
The architectural structure of the house is a reinterpretation of agricultural farm southeast Spain. For this reason we have used the Arabic tiles on the cover (albeit on a solid structure with Arlita lightweight concrete on beams structure), and load-bearing walls of extreme width.
3. Sustainable Analysis
1. Resource Optimization
1.1. Natural Resources. They take full advantage of resources such as the sun (to heat the house), the wind and earth (to cool the housing), straw, mud, soil, stones in the environment (to build the house), water rain (for watering the garden and flushing the toilet), ... ..
1.2. Resources made. The materials used are maximized, while avoiding possible waste through proper project and effective management. On the other hand, proper housing design allows it to build with little supporting resources. In fact, users themselves can build more than half of the house.
1.3. Resources recovered, reused and recycled.
In the construction of housing have been used waste (waste recovered, and even waste generated in the construction of the dwelling itself), such as packing tape, scraps of metal, ... have been used as filler in lightweight concrete deck with Arlita . Others, such as bags, packaging, etc ... have been used as waterproofing. Other residues such as wire mesh, scrap metal, bars, etc ... have been used as reinforcement of the foundation.
On the other hand, recovered materials are used, in perfect condition, but with a previous use (wooden beams, roofing, framing, straw bale, tiles, ...).
Finally, we used recycled and recyclable materials such as polypropylene water pipes, drain pipes of polyethylene, chipboard OSB and coatings for interior doors, recycled glass kitchen countertops and windows, etc ...
2. Decreased energy consumption
The house is built with minimal energy consumption. The materials used were manufactured with a minimum amount of energy. On the other hand, housing has been built with little supporting resources, and with very little labor, since the owners can deal with-at least-60% of the work necessary to build housing
Due to its characteristics bioclimatic housing has no conventional energy, not renewable. The house is heated by greenhouse gases, and a stack of biomass (waste on the environment). The hot water is generated by three solar thermal captors. The electricity needed to power home electronics is generated by a set of photovoltaic sensors (3 kw / peak). Only gas bottles are needed for the kitchen and refrigerator. Thus, the energy cost (and therefore economic) is practically negligible.
The vast majority of the materials used are biodegradable. And the rest can be recovered easily (once the life of the building) to be reused in the construction of another building (wooden beams, tiles, ceramic tiles, windows, shutters, railings, doors ..). Therefore not generate any type of waste in the dismantling of the dwelling (demolition concept has no place in a truly sustainable architecture).
3. Using alternative energy sources
The energy used is four types: wind (domestic wind turbine 1 kw), solar thermal (solar captors for three ACS), solar PV (photovoltaic captors to generate 3 kW / peak), and geothermal energy (system refresh taking advantage of low air temperature at 2 meters underground in the galleries below the floor slab of the house).
4. Reduced waste and emissions
The only emissions are housing the fireplace that generates biomass, on the few occasions it is necessary to use. There are no other emissions. Nor is there any type of waste. No residue is generated in the construction of housing (in fact, have been used in its construction waste). Household waste generated is used to treat them properly again (gray water for garden irrigation, sewage and household waste for composting of organic garden). The packaging of food and household products are accumulated in containers, s to be treated later.
5. Improving health and wellbeing
All materials used are environmentally friendly and healthy and have no emissions that can affect human health. Similarly, the house is naturally ventilated, and maximizes natural light (artificial lighting can not be used as long as natural lighting), which creates a healthy environment and provides the best possible quality of life for building occupants .
6. Reduced price of the building and maintenance
The house has been designed in a rational way, removing unnecessary items, unnecessary or gratuitous, allowing construction to a greatly reduced price, despite the ecological equipment includes. Similarly, housing is very easy to maintain, regular cleaning and treatment of wood biennial vegetable oils.
4. Bioclimatic Characteristics
1.1. Heat Generation Systems
The house is heated by itself in two ways: 1. Avoiding cool: because of its high thermal insulation (straw bale walls of 60 cm. Thick, insulated floor slab on the underside), and having glazed surfaces just south and east, and none to the north. 2. due to its careful and special bioclimatic design. Greenhouse is heated, direct sunlight, very high isolation and a fireplace built into the wall biomass central adobe.
1.2. Fresh Generation Systems
Housing cools itself in three ways: 1. Avoiding hot, glazed surfaces providing just south and east, just west of sunscreens providing for the direct and indirect solar radiation, and providing adequate insulation. 2. Cooling by air cooling system using two wind sensors, and a series of underground galleries. On the other hand, due to high thermal inertia of the housing, the accumulated fresh overnight stays for almost the entire next day. 3. Evacuating the hot air outside the house, through a solar chimney and natural convection.
3. Storage systems (heat or cool)
The heat generated during the day in winter (greenhouse effect, direct sunlight and biomass by the fireplace) is accumulated in the floors, walls of adobe load of 55 cm. thick and solid cover of lightweight concrete. Thus the house stays warm all night, with little power consumption.
The cool night generated during the summer (for natural ventilation due to lower temperatures outside) accumulates in the floors, walls of adobe load of 55 cm. thick and solid in the lightweight concrete deck. Thus the housing stays cool throughout the day without any energy consumption.
4. Transfer systems (heat or cool).
The heat generated by the greenhouse effect and natural radiation is transmitted to the rear of the housing through air currents inside the floor slab. The heat from the chimney of biomass is passed through the adobe wall and a set of copper pipes under the flooring tiles of clay, spread across the central part of the house.
The cool air generated in the underground galleries for housing is distributed through a set of grids spread over the slab of the house. Also generated by the evaporation of fresh water flowing through a set of water pipes all over the inside of the house.
5. Natural ventilation
The ventilation of the building is continuously and naturally through the very walls surround, allowing adequate ventilation without energy loss. This type of ventilation is possible because all materials are breathable (straw, lime-cement mortar, lime paint), although the set has a behavior completely waterproof.
5. Eco-friendly materials
1. Foundations and structure.
Structure of load-bearing walls of straw bales (walls 60 cm. Thick, based on straw bales 52 cm. Thick), and load-bearing walls of adobe bricks (walls 60 cm. Thick, to adobe base of 55 cm. thick). The base walls of straw bales are covered with a cloth Gallinera, 4 cm. lime mortar and lime paint. The adobe block walls have been coated with a layer of lime mortar.
2. Exterior finishes
3. Interior finishes
Lime paint. Flooring clay tile to 700 degrees. Double panel doors OSB plywood, treated with vegetable oils.
Pine beams, which holds a layer of lightweight concrete with Arlita, rubber waterproofing fabric and Moorish tiles.
Polypropylene water pipes. Polyethylene drainage pipes. Gas fueled appliances (including refrigerator). Pine woodwork treated with vegetable oils. Cotton canvas awnings. Shutters and sunscreens from solid pine, treated with vegetable oils.
6. Highlights Innovations
- Heat transfer system for the health of the floor slabs (cut off by the bottom Arlita slabs of 5 cm.).
- Cover Arlita solid solid
- Captor double wind to cool the outside air through a series of underground galleries and the floor slab
- System for packaging bales of straw, and fastening with prefabricated concrete
- Exterior walls based on straw bales. The system used allows for breathability of the set, and protects the straw from insects and decay.
- Make a house practically biodegradable. The biodegradation process begins when the maintenance process ends.
- Conduct a home with a high level of self. The homeowners wanted to make, at least, 60% of the necessary work.
- Building a house completely self-sufficient:
- Energy (wind, geothermal and solar)
- Water (treatment of rainwater and borehole "In situ")
- Waste (waste treatment and use of)
- Food (cultivation of fruits, grains, tubers)
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