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1. Most Important Goals
- Designing a home energy self-sufficient.
- Designing a home with a bioclimatic architectural structure, so you do not need absolutely no heating in winter.
- Designing a home that harmonizes fresh systems architectural bioclimatic green with a mechanical cooling.
- Designing a home with a powered mechanical cooling only photovoltaics.
2. Architectural Solution
The house is located in a small plot near the beach of Gandia. The property is located diagonally into the lot looking for a perfect orientation, to maximize the solar radiation in winter, and avoid it in summer.
The house has a tripartite architectural structure, turning all spaces covered patio (greenhouse in winter, icebox in summer). This central space provides a vertical communication and architectural richness to the whole.
The users wanted a house that was completely self-sufficient, from an energy standpoint, and that in turn could generate a very cool in summer, and had no need of any type of heating in winter (the stove built into a wall load has a symbolic purpose).
The request was solved by providing housing a large glass areas to the south, and by providing a large thermal inertia, and a provision of walls thoroughly studied captors. Thus, housing can make the most of solar radiation (however little there is) in winter, and use it to create a greenhouse effect sufficient housing to ensure the welfare of its occupants.
These huge glass surfaces are effectively protected in summer by shading combined system of various types, so that solar radiation directly and indirectly, do not heat the house. However, given that housing is designed to be a perfect solar captor, and given also the space requirements have extremely cool in summer, has arranged a cooling device, powered by photovoltaic electricity. The decision to install a mechanical cooling system is further reinforced by the client's desire to lower the maximum humidity in your home (the home environment is especially hot and humid). The property includes on its cover a set of sensors that provide solar photovoltaic 4 kw / peak, enough to feed this system and meet their energy needs few (as few appliances, and are energy efficient).
3. Sustainable Analysis
1. Resource Optimization
1.1. Natural Resources. They take full advantage of resources such as sunlight (for home heating and electricity generation), the breeze, the land (to cool the housing), rain water (for watering the garden and flushing toilets), .... .
1.2. Resources made. The materials used are maximized, while avoiding possible waste through proper project and effective management (concrete, bricks, ceramic tiles, carpentry, painting, ...). On the other hand, proper housing design, based on load-bearing walls, can only be built without assistive devices (such as scaffolds, cranes, etc ...).
1.3. Resources recovered, reused and recycled.
The vast majority of housing materials can be recovered (flooring, woodwork, glass, wood beams, girders, deck, walkways, cabinets, wood coatings, sunscreens, health ...).
On the other hand, has promoted the use of recycled and recyclable materials such as polypropylene water pipes, drain pipes of polyethylene, OSB plywood boards for interior doors, plywood panels and sloping roof coatings, recycled glass kitchen countertops and windows, etc ...
2. Decreased energy consumption
The house is built with minimal energy consumption. The materials used were manufactured with a minimum amount of energy. On the other hand, housing has been built with little supporting resources, and with very little labor.
Due to its characteristics bioclimatic housing has a very low energy consumption standard. The house is heated only by the greenhouse effect. The hot water is generated by two solar thermal captors. The house is cooled by bioclimatic structure, and through a mechanical system powered by solar photovoltaic sensors built into its architecture.
The vast majority of materials used can be recovered easily (once the life of the building) to be reused in the construction of another building (flooring, woodwork, glass, wood beams, girders, deck, walkways, cabinets, wood coatings, sunscreens, health ...). On the other hand, housing is projected to have a high durability and life cycle of hundreds of years, since all components are easily serviceable housing. In this way, it makes sense to talk of dismantling, but ongoing maintenance of very low energy consumption.
3. Using alternative energy sources
The energy used is of two types: solar thermal (solar captors for two ACS, and evaporation of water to air cooling) and photovoltaic, and geothermal (fresh air system taking advantage of low temperature at 2 meters underground, in the galleries below the floor slab of the house).
4. Reduced waste and emissions
The property does not generate any emissions and does not generate any waste, except organic. Some of these household waste are used again to treat them accordingly (gray water for watering the garden). On the other hand, during the construction of the house just waste were generated, and many of them have been reused.
5. Improving health and wellbeing
All materials used are environmentally friendly and healthy and have no emissions that can affect human health. Similarly, the house is naturally ventilated, and maximizes natural light (artificial lighting can not be used as long as natural lighting), which creates a healthy environment and provides the best possible quality of life for building occupants .
6. Reduced price of the building and maintenance
The house has been designed in a rational way, removing unnecessary items, unnecessary or gratuitous, allowing construction to a conventional price, despite the ecological equipment includes. Similarly, housing is very easy to maintain, regular cleaning and treatment of wood biennial vegetable oils.
4. Bioclimatic Characteristics
1.1. Heat Generation Systems
The house is heated by itself in two ways: 1. Avoiding cool: Due to its high thermal insulation, large glass surfaces and having just south and east, and none to the north. 2. due to its careful and special bioclimatic design. Greenhouse is heated, direct sunlight, and stays warm for a long time, due to its high thermal inertia.
1.2. Fresh Generation Systems
Housing cools itself in four ways: 1. Avoiding hot, glazed surfaces providing just south and east, just west of sunscreens providing for the direct and indirect solar radiation (a type of protection different for each of the holes in different directions) and providing isolation appropriate. 2. Cooling by a cooling air through a wind sensor, and a geothermal system of underground galleries. On the other hand, due to high thermal inertia of the housing, the accumulated fresh overnight stays for almost the entire next day. 3. Evacuating the hot air outside the house, through a solar chimney and natural convection and 4. A system of mechanical cooling by evaporation of water.
3. Storage systems (heat or cool)
The heat generated during the day in winter (greenhouse and sunlight) is accumulated in the floors and interior bearing walls of high thermal inertia. Thus the house stays warm all night, with little power consumption.
The cool night generated during the summer (for natural ventilation due to lower temperatures outside) accumulates in the floors and interior bearing walls of high thermal inertia. Thus the housing stays cool throughout the day without any energy consumption.
4. Transfer systems (heat or cool).
The heat generated by natural radiation emissions and is distributed throughout the house, through the central courtyard, which overturned all rooms.
The cool air generated in the underground galleries for housing is distributed through a set of grids spread over the slab of the house. On the other hand, fresh air rises through the central courtyard and through all the rooms through the vents of the Interior doors. The fresh air vents of the mechanical system coincides with the outputs of bioclimatic architectural system.
5. Natural ventilation
The ventilation of the building is, continuously and naturally through the very walls surround, allowing adequate ventilation without energy loss. This type of ventilation is possible because all materials are breathable (ceramic, lime-cement mortar, paint silicates), although the set has a behavior completely waterproof.
5. Eco-friendly materials
1. Foundations and structure.
Wall of two leaves. The inner leaf is the load-bearing brick wall perforated 25 cm. thickness (with high thermal inertia). The blade is hollow brick exterior of 7 cm. Inside there is a double sheet of hemp insulation layer of 5 cm. and a ventilated air space of 3 cm. (In some parts of the facade exterior sheet has been made out of wooden slats tongued sweden heat-treated pine, arranged by battens, including a hemp insulation layer of 5 cm, and a ventilated air gap of 2 cm .) semiviguetas Forged prestressed and concrete vaults.
2. Exterior finishes
Silicate paint. Ipe wood treated with vegetable oils.
3. Interior finishes
Paintings vegetables. Flooring tile porcelain tile. Double doors plywood board, beech plywood, and treated with vegetable oils.
Pitched roof that enhances the natural convection effect creates a "chimney" for the removal of indoor air in summer. The sloping roof is made out of a board "sandwich" consisting of three sheets: a Viroc board (wood chips with cement) of 13 mm. thick, black layer of cork (from bark of cork oak forests on fire) of 100 mm. thick, and a birch plywood board of 13 mm. thick. This board "sandwich" is protected by a tarpaulin and a coating of zinc.
Polypropylene water pipes. Polyethylene drainage pipes. Energy-efficient appliances. Iroko wood carpentry treated with vegetable oils. Cotton canvas awnings. Shading Ipe hardwood, treated with vegetable oils. All woods used have a certificate of origin with selective logging and ecological treatment (FSC).
6. Highlights Innovations
- Design of the wind sensor and geothermal air cooling by means of underground galleries, taking advantage of the space under the floor slab.
- System refresh mechanical sensors powered by solar.
- Integration of bioclimatic architectural refresh system with the mechanical system.
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