CENTRE ExPo-RT CULTUREL pour L’ORIENT
nell’Ex Porto Militare di Lorient: un polo per “exportare” la cultura.
La base tedesca per sottomarini di Lorient (Francia), costruita durante la Seconda Guerra Mondiale (1941-1943), diventa il principale posto di comando della Germania sull’Atlantico. La base venne dichiarata “indistruttibile”.
Alla fine della guerra, la Marina Nazionale Francese occupa la BSM di Kéroman fino al 1996, anno di chiusura della Base. Il sito rimane per anni inutilizzato e lasciato nel “dimenticatoio” della città, solo alcune aziende di stoccaggio ne occupano una parte.
Il proposito dell’intervento proposto è quello di riabilitare la BSM, proteggendo e mettendo in valore il patrimonio unico ed eccezionale di questo sito posto nel mezzo di un paesaggio di grande valore. L’idea principale è di ridare valore ai 3 “bunker” presenti nell’area, seguendo il seguente programma di riconversione:
Bloc K1 (120m x 120m): residenze temporanee – foresteria;
Bloc K2 (128 m x 138m): centro fieristico e per grandi eventi – museo;
Bloc K3 (138m x 170m): auditorium, sale espositive - biblioteca, sale multifunzionali - cinema, teatro - uffici, commercio.
“La base des sous-marins à Keroman”
During the Second World War, Lorient was chosen by Germans, because of its strategic location in the “Rade”, as check point for the submarines.
The base of the submarines in Keroman it’s the largest military building Nazis out of Germany. The defense device of the U-Boote was unique in Europe. The largest base in France plays a first rate part in the battle of the Atlantic.
The BSM (base sous-marins) is composed of three large bunkers: BlocK1 120m x120m; BlocK2 128mx138m; BlocK3 138mx170m.
At the end of the war the “German citadel” is untouched, but the city of Lorient is destroyed at the 80%.
Considering the good condition of the base, in 1945, the French National Navy occupied it till 1997, the year when the BSM is closed and abandoned.
Progress, Methodologies and tools used for the Project
So the proposal is to build a main axis that put in communication the “Rond-Point de sous marins” with the end of the “pointe du keroman”, provided with roads, foot paths and new buildings. All along this axis it is proposed the construction of new buildings, keeping the soil as much as possible free and regaining the area taken by the three elements that compose the BSM. This symbolic axis is formed of the three bunkers themselves, that cross the new functional activities, can connect again the town to the city.
The mean idea it’s to give value to the sculptural shape of the bunkers. The different functions of the plan, are put sometimes inside of the blocs themselves and sometimes on their ceilings, according to the existing activities and those proposed.
The scope of this intervention is to build a “Centre ExPo-RT Culturel pour L’Orient”:
Expo, Residence, Tourism, in the military port of Lorient : a centre to « ex-port » the culture.
The plan for the reorganization of the base of sous- marins at Keroman foresees:
Bloc K2: Fair Centre for great events and Museum dedicated to the history of the submarines;
Bloc K1: Temporary Residences – guest quarters;
Bloc K3: Auditorium – Exhibition Room; Library – Multipurpose Rooms; Cinema-Theatre; Office district – trade; Place dedicated to the memory and Restaurants – belvedere.
To rehabilitate the Pointe de Keroman means, first of all, to protect and to increase the value of heritage, unique and special, of this site almost intact, placed in the middle of a landscape of great value. Composed of three large bunkers and surrounded with several activities living their own life, like the fishing port and Helioparc.
At the moment in the site are present some tourist and industrial activities badly connected. The urban plan foresees a series of additional attractions, like la “Cité de la voile Erik Tabarly”, a museum space dedicated to the submarines history, the large promenade and the “village d’entreprises”, a space dedicated to the greatest Britain exploits in the field of the navigation.
All these activities are built on the bank of Keroman, without taking in account the potentiality of the three bunkers.
It is necessary, in the end, to cherish the soil and to look for, at the same time, a strategic position where to place the new buildings that will give a new life to this place, a new image and a new meaning. This strategic place must play a part of interface and cloverleaf between the port, the town and the new cultural centre; a new integration zone.
The K1 Block is at the moment used by the companies that fabricate the catamarans; these companies use regularly the internal spaces of the bunkers. The plan for the guest quarters is developed on the ceiling of the block itself, foreseeing ramps, either for the cars, on the side of the fishing port, or for pedestrians, toward the sea connecting to the promenade. the temporary residences were designed to be prefabricated houses of the modular kind Phènix (module 6.00 x 4.50). these economic houses, follow to the traditional Britain houses.
The use of this assembling prototype comes out of the will of putting in contrast the severe and heavy architecture of the bunkers with a light and moving architecture.
K2, the bunker that is at the entrance of the site, at the moment is used as storage place is transformed, being the entry of the new pole, in a place dedicated to the reception, happenings and fairs. The plane at level 0.00 is completely opened, giving the chance to come in- to discover- to live that place and to go beyond. The space for the fairs takes place on two levels, on the first floor , with some flexible moving and expansible structures, and on the ceiling with large spaces where insides and exteriors follow one another repeatedly.
The k3 bunker, occupies a privileged position on the Pointe de Kéroman and straight to the water. The bunker represents a typology very particular, it is opened to ludic, cultural, services to visitors functions.
K3 becomes the heart of the culture: exhibition rooms, auditorium, cinema, theatre, library, newspaper library, etc, are linked to the building putting themselves in touch with it and with the game of the tides typical of the Atlantic Sea. An additional element, the one of the vertical walk, has the function of making discover again the panorama on the Rade. The ceiling becomes, in this way, the new square, meeting place equipped for the city, on the sea.
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