Rio de Janeiro. Brazil
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1. Most Important Goals
- Create an architectural symbol of the city of Rio de Janeiro, inspired by some of his most prized cultural references for the Brazilian people (Carnival, Capoeira, the Berimbau, beach, sea, light).
- Designing a Telecommunication Tower, in turn, is a multimedia Faro to serve as visual reference to the beaches of Rio de Janeiro.
- Designing a multimedia building, which could change shape cantínua its outward appearance, and can transmit multimedia information according to the constraints of the environment variables.
- Designing a self-building (water, energy and food)
- Designing a sustainable building high industrialized, whose components can be recovered, repairable, reusable and recyclable.
- Designing a building with infinite life cycle.
- Designing a building that can excite all Brazilians.
2. Architectural Solution
The city of Rio de Janeiro will suffer in the coming years economic and cultural development very important because of the booming economy of Brazil, and the fact of having to organize two major events of great impact to the economy: the World Cup 2014 and 2016 Olympic Games. This, no doubt, need a new recycling process model and growth of the city.
Within this process of recycling the city will take several types of actions, but certainly, the most important need to focus on symbolic buildings of diverse functionality. And no doubt we need a high-rise building representing the city of Rio de Janeiro (and why not, Brazil), and to house telecommunications systems and other activities related to coordination and international transmission of all sporting events to be to manage.
A symbolic building that represents an entire city or even an entire nation must move to all Brazilians, therefore, should be investigated in the cultures, formal, vernacular and ancestral Brazil. After a thorough investigation has been taken as the best option mestizo culture, and Capoeira dance and especially its ancient musical instrument, the berimbau.
It is therefore projected a symbolic building, sustainable, inspired by the shapes of the Berimbau to house telecommunications systems and offices for the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro in 2016. The building must also be a beacon, not only to serve as reference to craft, but also a symbolic beacon representing Brazil, and as a reference to sustainable development.
The environment chosen to build the colossal symbol of the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro is on an island near the famous beach adjacent to the "Sugar Loaf" inevitable reference of Rio de Janeiro. In this way the building looks from anywhere in the city of Rio de Janeiro, and also from the sea. The building would be a permanent reference of all the beaches of Rio de Janeiro, and its Olympic venues.
The resulting building is inspired by the Berimbau and supports a mast close to spherical-shaped building, suspended in the air.
The shaft has a double function: to support the building and provide fresh air you need to get adequate natural ventilation. Similarly, home lighting systems own the lighthouse and light multimedia systems.
The area has 5 levels. The lower level is home to recreational activities. The immediate level houses offices. The middle level houses a gazebo and souvenir shops. The penultimate level houses offices. And the upper level houses a conference room.
On the other hand, in the basement of the island, next to the flagpole, the building continues to be underground, housing offices, conference rooms and flexible meeting rooms.
The overall height is 113 meters. The constructed area of 2,083 m2 '30. The area has 80 of 1,482 m2, and the whole has an area of underground 600'50m2.
3. Sustainable Analysis
1. Resource Optimization
1.1. Natural Resources. They take full advantage of resources such as the sun (to generate hot water, heating the building greenhouse effect, and provide natural light to all offices), wind, air (cold air from the ground), land (geothermal system to heat and cool the building), rainwater (water reservoirs), ... ..
1.2. Resources made. The materials used are maximized, reducing potential waste through proper design, full industrialization of all components of the skyscraper, and effective management of its construction.
1.3. Resources recovered, reused and recycled.
All building components may be recoverable, so that the skyscraper can be removed in its entirety, and can be repaired, recycle and reuse all its components in a simple way.
2. Reduced energy consumption
The building has been constructed with a minimum energy consumption. The materials used were made in the factory with a minimum amount of energy.
Due to their bioclimatic characteristics, the building has a very low power consumption. The skyscraper is heated greenhouse, and an efficient geothermal heat pump. On the other hand, the skyscraper is cooled through an efficient sunscreen, a geothermal system and architectural generation of fresh air (underground), and a geothermal heat pump.
The vast majority of materials used can be recovered easily (once the life of the building) to be repaired, or used in another building.
3. Use of alternative energy sources
The energy used is of two types: solar thermal (solar captors to produce the ACS, and sensors for generating photovoltaic electricity) and geothermal (to generate hot air and fresh air).
4. Reduction of waste and emissions
The building does not generate any emissions, and reduced to a minimum waste generation.
5. Improving health and wellbeing
All materials used are environmentally friendly and healthy and have no emissions that can affect human health. Similarly, the building is ventilated naturally, and because of its architectural structure, making the most of natural lighting, creating a healthy environment and provides the best possible quality of life for building occupants.
6. Reduced price of the building and maintenance
The building has been designed to have a simple management, and very easy to maintain and repair. To do this we have used the technology more advanced control and telecommunications at the time.
4. Bioclimatic Characteristics
1.1. Heat Generation.
To generate heat (in winter) in the skyscrapers have used the following techniques:
1.1.1. Techniques to avoid energy losses in winter:
He has designed a double skin of glass with an intermediate air chamber (width variable). The outer skin consists of a tempered laminated glass (6-6-6) curve, which provides the spherical shape of the building suspended.
This curved glass outer skin has a special screen so that sunlight passes very perpendicular to the glass (winter) and does not let the sun flush (summer). The inner skin is in turn a double glass ((6 +6 +6) -12-6), which has an exterior system of tarps and a triple inside rail of blinds. The set provides a very high insulation prevents energy loss in winter.
1.1.2. Techniques for heating the building
- Greenhouse effect.
The double skin of glass allows two systems to generate heat for the building. On the one hand allows solar radiation to penetrate the skyscrapers and stays hot radiation. This heat is maintained during the night due to the high inertia of the set and limited energy losses. On the other hand the double skin allows a greenhouse double. The hot air generated by the camera stands between the double skin and enters into the building. In addition, through an ingenious system of openings of the double skin of glass is allowed in winter ventilation with preheated air through the greenhouse. This will keep the temperature of the building, without HVAC mechanical systems, and therefore without any energy consumption.
- Solar thermal Captors.
Integrated into the curved glass on the north side of the glass sphere has a set of sensors located solar thermal (vacuum tubes). In this way the system protects against solar radiation in summer, while generating hot water needed by the skyscrapers.
- High thermal inertia of the building.
The heat generated during the day by the above methods is accumulated in the building due to its high thermal inertia and keeps it hot all night. This facilitates its heating running the next day.
1.2. Heat buildup.
Due to the high thermal inertia of the building (made of precast reinforced concrete), much of the heat generated during the day remains accumulated during the night, keeping the rooms warm, with little energy consumption.
1.3. Heat Transfer (and light).
To heat the rooms north has designed a system of heat transfer through the double glass skin. Just driving (by fans who are on the inside of the double skin) hot air generated in the southern part of the skyscraper, it reaches the north around the entire building and heating it on its way
2.1. Generation of Fresco.
For fresh produce in the building uses the following techniques:
2.1.1. Techniques to keep the building warm in summer:
- Protection against direct solar radiation.
In areas south of the building sun protection is achieved by folding down the outer glass of the double-glass skin. This avoids heat generation greenhouse, plus opaque horizontal elements (which are the solar thermal captors) protect the glass from direct radiation. In addition, we used another complementary technique of using screen-printed glass by a point system that let in sunlight very perpendicular to the glass (winter) and do not let the sun flush (summer). In this case, the hot air that is created in the double skin of glass up through the vents that serve as separation between the slabs, and escape to the outside. This circulating air vents double glass skin and removes heat gains, insulating the building.
In the areas to the east and west of the building horizontal sunscreens do not work, so have arranged a series of panels with metallic shading inclined inside the double skin of glass. Thus solar radiation does not come into the building and the air heated in the intermediate chamber rises to the top outside through horizontal vents are at the height of each cast of the building.
- Protection against indirect solar radiation.
This is achieved through three levels of internal blinds opaque, translucent and transparent multi-colored. This controls the amount of light in every room inside the skyscraper (200 to 600 lux) and mood of the workers (through the color of the blinds).
2.1.2. Techniques for cooling in summer skyscraper
- Fresh air Geothermal Generation
Around the base of the building are arranged several shots outside air channel to a set of galleries where underground geothermal cooling naturally stable due to the temperature of the subsoil. The cooled air and climbs the mast of the skyscraper to reach the area, cooling in its path. To cool the building, the air is heated and rises, and is sucked into the effect of "fire" generated at the top of the sphere.
- Refresh at night (circadian rhythms)
The floors of the skyscraper has a high thermal inertia, so at night it allows outside air to cool the building, and will stay fresh throughout the next day. A simple system allows evening hatches between the outside air, while air enters day only by the core (fresh air).
- De-wetting-water spray.
To refresh the skyscraper has naturally made use of a simple and natural: water spray, in order to evaporate and thereby, lower the temperature of the immediate environment. However, this method increases the humidity level, and therefore increases the feeling of embarrassment. Therefore, we first de-moisturizes the air, filtering it through salts which absorb moisture, and through a mechanical device based on the "Peltier effect". Second, the resulting dry air is cooled by a water spray evaporation. The result is fresh air, and humidity with a similar or lower than the natural state of the environment.
- Geothermal energy.
Several are planned drilling of about 150 m. depth of heat exchangers which serve for the geothermal heat pump. This heat pump cools the building by a floor heating system of cold water.
2.2. Fresh transmission.
The fresh air entering the field, from the central shaft, through all the rooms, radially, and cool in its path. The air escapes through the glass top of the inner skin of double skin of glass. It creates an overpressure in the top of the room so the air out, preventing outside air from entering the rooms. Thus the remaining stays fresh throughout the day without any need for mechanical air conditioning systems.
2.3. Accumulation of Fresco.
The high thermal inertia of the skyscraper (due to heavy intermediate floors and gardens) allows the cool air generated is maintained throughout the day, with little energy consumption.
5. Most important innovations
- Self-sufficiency of water. The building is self-sufficient in water. That is, does not connect to the systems of municipal water supply (though it connected to the network of "water" in order to have an alternative source of water, if necessary).
The water required for human consumption, human hygiene, and to irrigate crops and green areas is obtained from several complementary sources: 1. Ground water. The building has several probes to extract water from underground aquifers. The water thus obtained is filtered and purified to become unfit for human consumption. 2. Rainwater. Rainwater that falls on the building is collected and stored in several tanks of 20,000 liters perimeter. The water is filtered and purified to become unfit for human consumption. 3. Recycling greywater. Greywater generated by the building is filtered and stored in warehouses located for this purpose. The water thus obtained is filtered and purified to become unfit for human consumption.
- Energy self-sufficiency. The building is energy self-sufficient. That is, not connected to the systems of municipal electricity.
This self-energy is due to several reasons: 1. The optimal bioclimatic building design, which makes very little power or for thermal conditioning or lighting (only need 20% of the energy normally consumed a building in the same area and at the same location). 2. Using a thermal conditioning system based on a heat pump system powered by geothermal and photovoltaic systems. 3. Using low-power LED lights. 4. Elimination of redundant appliances and devices completely unnecessary. 5. Installing a photovoltaic system generating 30,000 watts of power / peak, and a system of electric storage batteries based on energy-efficient green. 6. Use of ranges and refrigerators powered by biogas. 7. Proper education of building users, who behave in an honest and rational, and have a correct perception of what the man's place in the world.
- Self-sufficiency of food. The island has several biological orchards, which provide basic food for the occupants. The Mediterranean climate allows several crops a year of cereals, legumes, fruits and vegetables. And the arable land is more than enough to feed the occupants of the house and small farm animals you have. Just as you have selected the most suitable cattle to complete self-contained ecosystem of the island.
- High level of a building symbolic bioclimatic high-rise. During the warm season the building is cooled naturally. The underground part of the building is maintained at a comfortable temperature in both winter and summer, due to its high thermal mass and natural ventilation. The glass sphere has a triple skin of glass with a ventilated chamber inside. The chamber is ventilated in summer, and is able to dissipate itself the enormous generation of heat from solar radiation. In addition, the skin has inside of horizontal and vertical shading to avoid direct sunlight access into the building, only indirectly. Finally, the fresh air that rises through the shaft of the building through all the rooms in the area at high speed, and cooling in its path. In this way the building is kept cool all summer long, lighted and ventilated naturally, and without any energy consumption. In addition, building occupants can enjoy unparalleled views of the beaches of Rio de Janeiro.
During the colder season, sunlight access partially within the area and keeps warm in a natural way, without any energy consumption
- Natural ventilation with heat recovery systems. The building is naturally ventilated, as the outside air passes through some underground tunnels to cool, and are introduced to different areas across the pole. This ensures a perfect welfare of the occupants, without any energy consumption.
- Symbolic architectural integration of renewable energy. Energy self-sufficiency is achieved through various systems:
a. Architectural geothermal (underground galleries)
b. Geothermal (ground source heat pump)
c. Solar energy (thermal sensors)
d. Solar energy (photovoltaic captors)
The glass area integrates the components in solar thermal captors (which generate hot water) and photovoltaic sensors (which generate little electricity needed by the building).
- Building multimedia. The double skin of glass screen printing is equipped with thousands of tiny multicolored LEDs, individually controlled, allowing you to compose scenes and images. In addition, this double glass skin images are projected through a set of synchronized video projectors. Thus, images are able to manipulate the shapes and spaces, giving the whole an ethereal, weightless and intangible. Physical spaces are mixed with virtual spaces, and you can not tell where they end architectural elements, and where visual information begins. It is therefore a true multimedia building that changes shape and color according to circumstances.
- Ease of evacuation. The building is very easy to pass, as each plant has very few occupants, and a set of elevators controlled by an expert system.
- Fire resistance. The building has a high resistance to fire. Its supporting structure is of reinforced concrete, high performance, and the metal structure is protected from redundancy.
- Building system which eliminates the generation of construction waste. The components of the building have been made in the factory, without generating any residue. The building is done by assembling components dry, without generating any residue. Similarly, if it were necessary to remove the building, just desensamblarían all its components, without generating any residue.
- Life Cycle infinity. All building components are designed for mounting on base tronillos dry, nails and pressure. This can be easily removed from the building to be repaired, reused or returned. Thus, the building can last indefinitely, with very low power consumption.
- Portability. On separate pieces. The set of architectural elements of the building has been designed to be assembled and disassembled, and indefinitely. For this reason, these elements can be transported anywhere, to be mounted easily, as many times as necessary.
- System of prefabricated construction. All housing components are made in different factories. These components have been assembled in the building's location, giving the building. Not a single component has been made "in situ". Of course, this requires making a good architectural design.
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