ANAVIF. Construmat 2005
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1. Most Important Goals
- Build a habitable dwelling, entirely made of glass, as the only material, including the supporting structure. The idea is to show the untapped possibilities-glass-construction. Hence, all elements are glass housing (including columns, beams, decks, fireplaces, floors, walls, furniture, appliances, bathrooms, decorative ...).
- Experience with glass as a structural material. The ultimate goal is to define a technical standard, and a process of structural design and dimensions, base only, glass elements.
- Designing a home with the highest possible degree of sustainability, despite the difficulty of using mostly glass building. The intention is to invite reflection on all the features you must have a building to be 100% sustainable.
- Ask a virtual home, multimedia, equipped with the latest advances in control technology, telecommunications, air conditioning and lighting. The aim is to experiment with light, sound, multimedia projections and glass, so that transcend physical spaces in virtual spaces, and the matter is diluted into light and sound.
- Achieving a self-sufficient housing, constructed of standard elements of flat glass.
- To design all the furniture, health and housing supplements, based solely on flat glass. Of course, these elements must be fully functional and ergonomic.
- Design a removable housing that can be built in protected natural environments, and is perfectly integrated into the environment.
2. Architectural Solution
The prototype includes the construction of the house (126 m2) as its outer urban areas (314 m2).
The house is divided into three zones:
- A core set of 42 m2, for work activities in the home. This is the area where heat is generated in winter (greenhouse double skin of glass and solar control glass cover) and cool in summer (by air from the wind sensor).
- Two lateral bodies of 42 m2 each. A body hosts the sleeping area (bedrooms and bathrooms) and the other the living area (living room and kitchen).
3. Sustainable Analysis
1. Resource Optimization
Maximum degree of recyclability
Glass is easily recyclable material, and requires very little energy to it. The recyclability of a material means little regard to their sustainability, as the vast majority of materials are recyclable. What is really true is that a material is recyclable using very little energy and resources. For example, aluminum can be recycled, but the energy required is very high, much higher even than the collection of almost any other material.
Ato degree of naturalness
Glass is a material that is generated naturally in nature, and requires relatively little energy to be produced from abundant materials and through a simple process. Thus the degree of naturalness is high.
The Glass is very heavy and will remain, as the raw material for manufacturing, silica, is one of the most abundant of nature.
The prototype has been designed with prefabricated elements so that, after dismantling, can be reused for anything else. The glass pieces are designed with little variety of sizes, so you can exchange your position, and are easily repairable. He has designed an ingenious structural system, so that the windows do not even need to be bored, so it is easier to reuse later. Only used a simple hardware-faint-gravity to hold the glass. The hardware is capable of holding all the parts without holes or lines, ensuring resistance to vertical and horizontal loads to bear argo of life. This hardware is perhaps the greatest achievement of the prototype.
The glass has no toxic component at all that can alter human health and the planet. Adhesives have been chosen just as well as silkscreen paintings used.
The durability of the glass is extraordinarily high. There are no comprehensive data that can last a tempered glass or laminated glass, but suitably treated, is the most durable materials.
Similarly, the prototype is designed so that, taken together, can have an infinite life cycle and natural environments. To do this, we designed a structural system and construction in which all parts can be replaced at any time for another of equal or better features, at the time they stopped being useful. Just as different parts are easily replaceable. No holes, no hardware to replace parts just have to loosen it and remove it.
2. Waste and Emissions Reduction
In the manufacture of materials
For the manufacture of glass does not generate any waste, as the remaining scraps are recycled continuously. Similarly, virtually no environmental emissions.
In building the prototype
No waste of any kind generated in the assembly of the prototype. The pieces have been cut with pinpoint accuracy, and have used them all. Most materials have been served on site without packaging, and the few existing packages have been designed to carry elements of the house back to the factory, once you remove the prototype.
In the life of the building
There is no residue and no emissions during the life of the prototype. Keep in mind that the prototype has been designed to have an infinite lifetime, ie an infinite life cycle.
In the dismantling
The prototype has been designed so as not to generate almost no waste in its dismantling. Applying heat with a wire will remove the few adhesives used (inert nature and biodegradable). The remaining materials will remain intact and ready to be reused as many times as necessary.
3. Energy Reduction
Energy consumption for obtaining the glass is half (aprox.17 mJ / kg.) Compared to other materials. Materials such as concrete, ceramic or stone with less power consumption. In contrast, the production of other materials such as steel, aluminum, plastics, paints, varnishes or isolates implies a much higher energy consumption. In addition, the parts designed for the prototype have little dimensional variation and repeated, therefore, the energy cost needed is minimal.
We used only pieces of flat glass (laminated and tempered), so that the number of pieces as small as possible, has the fewest number of different pieces and parts are placed as quickly as possible (and with the least amount possible labor and auxiliary machinery).
The dismantling is very simple and consumes very little power. You only need to remove the adhesive with a wire and pick up one by one each piece of glass (which need not broken or damaged).
Transportation of material and labor
The materials and labor have been local. There has been no need for skilled labor.
Despite being built solely of glass, the prototype has an adequate thermal performance. Of course the fact that we chose glass as the only material-a priori implies severe restrictions on energy efficiency of the prototype (eg, decks and glass walls would inevitably generate a significant warming of summer days building at same time involving a low thermal insulation). However, they have used a set of bioclimatic strategies that have offset these deficiencies and have allowed a proper thermal performance and high energy efficiency.
The prototype has a zero energy consumption of non-renewable. The prototype generates hot water (via solar thermal sensors), electricity (via solar photovoltaic sensors and wind turbines), heat (greenhouse effect), and cool (by geothermal architectural devices).
4. Improved health and well-being
All materials used are environmentally friendly and healthy and have no emissions that can affect human health. Similarly, the building is naturally ventilated, and maximizing natural light, creating a healthy environment and provides the best possible quality of life for its occupants.
5. Reduced price of the building and maintenance
The prototype maintenance costs are very low. The only short-term maintenance is cleaning, because the transparent nature of glass and semi-transparent. However, treatment of the glass and the design of each component part has been done to minimize this section. To reduce the degree of breakage or damage, given the fragility of glass, are suitably designed supports and elastic joints of the structure. As maintenance personnel of the prototype was not necessary
5. Bioclimatic characteristics
For the prototype design have been carefully chosen a set of architectural strategies that have resulted in a bioclimatic architectural style perfectly.
The orientation of the prototype has been made to the south, in order to ensure both the greatest number of hours of sunlight, as solar control architectural possibility (without control technologies or other artifacts).
2. Tripartite typology.
We have chosen a tripartite typology, so that both the area day and night area are geared towards the central body (covered patio). Precisely this is the central body that ensures cool in summer and heat generation in winter. In winter, close the glazing elements of the double skin of glass, making the central space in a huge greenhouse, which heats the other rooms of the prototype.
1. Solar control.
Sunscreens on the south side preventing sun rays from entering in summer but allow winter coming. In the sleeping area of the prototype has been installed a double skin of glass with a shutter on the inside that allows you to control the passage of sunlight into the building. In contrast, in the day, the solar control system chosen has been the willingness of a set of horizontal slats stained glass (the darker the better) with dimensions that allow the sun passes in winter, but not in summer.
In summer the outside folds of the double skin, which allows, along with sunscreens, the sun's rays do not enter the glass from the inside. This prevents overheating of the prototype.
The sloping roof panel has on its inner face a special film of sunscreen, so that filters out a good amount of light passing through glass. This will minimize the heat gains in summer, while increasing thermal insulation in winter.
4. Air Cooling System
The cooler air is absorbed northern winds by the captor, cool shade under the floor inside the prototype and is distributed by the false floors. But for those days when you can not cool the air by architectural means, the wind sensor has a built-in mechanical and thermal conditioning ecological,. The chosen system is energy efficient, generating ionization, oxygenation and bactericide. Fresh air to circulate through the entire house inside out has an ingenious system of natural convection "chimney effect".
The wall insulation has been achieved by incorporating a double skin of glass. This is achieved by a ventilated chamber can even be filled with insulating material to ensure proper insulation. On the other side for the insulation of roofs have followed two different strategies. A deck is covered with natural soil with vegetation, which guarantees the shading of the prototype, its isolation and thermal inertia. The other cover is filled with water, which is stored underneath the house cool summer nights (in a buried tank) and is pumped into the deck during the day, allowing the interior refresh.
6. Thermal inertia.
The house has a large thermal inertia that allows the generated cool summer nights continue throughout the next day. On the other hand, the heat produced by the greenhouse effect (and others) during the winter days, is conserved throughout the night. The high thermal mass has been achieved due to the large mass of glass panels, and the large mass of water and land included in the covers of the housing.
7. Renewable energy.
As sources of energy has turned to solar energy (thermal and photovoltaic) and wind energy. Solar thermal energy is used for hot water, while solar photovoltaic and wind power for electricity consumption of the prototype. In a real case, the electricity generated would be sold directly to power supply companies, so that energy efficiency is multiplied almost fourfold due to the difference in price between energy sold and to purchase (system network connection). It should be noted the new system for photovoltaic generation of electricity: double laminated glass panels that make photovoltaic cells. This will reduce costs and ensure the correct inclination of the photovoltaic cells (about 30 degrees in our latitude) to be effective.
5. Highlights Innovations
- Construction of glass. The prototype shows the potential of glass as a structural material in construction, but also to provide sustainable, decorative and insulating ... He has experimented with all kinds of glass and constructive solutions to achieve a sturdy, stable, adequate heat and 100% functional.
- Land cover and aquarium. To increase the thermal inertia, there are two types of coverage: a garden of water and other circadian cycles. On the cover of water, has provided an aquarium, while providing a show for the home users.
- Integration of alternative energies. They have integrated seamlessly into the architecture of the house alternative energy devices like solar thermal and photovoltaic sensors and wind generators. Laminated glass panels of the central pitched roof including photovoltaic cells.
- Ecological mechanical conditioning system. Environmental conditioning equipment installed has a bactericide, and ionization of oxygen and a heat exchanger.
- Multimedia technology. A set of video projectors, robots projectors, speakers and synthesizers seamlessly integrated and coordinated with the home automation control system can produce a multimedia show continued in all the architectural elements of the house. Architectural spaces are defined at all times by the lighting and multimedia information, and continuously change according to environmental conditions (temperature, humidity, noise, number of people ...). Even the privacy and functionality of the different living spaces can be changed by changing only the level of lighting in each room.
- Flexible structure. To respond to changing needs, spaces are easily renewable, thanks to the kitchen and bathroom are relocatable, electrical, water and sewer flexible, soils recordable media ethereal spaces and mobile toilets and a new functionality.
- Lighting option. The lighting of the house was made with an intelligent low-energy lighting by LEDs. Among many other innovations, have been used transparent glass walls lit with LEDs inside, and new materials backlit, halfway between the ceramics and glass.
- Furniture and sanitary glass. Both furniture and the bathrooms are made with flat glass postemplado. They have a unique aesthetic, play with light effects and are perfectly integrated into the architecture.
- Building system that lets you build a house in 5 weeks.
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