BIOSFERA XXI ECO-HOUSING COMPLEX
Biosfera XXI S.L.
154'90 m2 (each of the houses)
(Expandable to 165.80 176.65 m2 m2)
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1. Most Important Goals
- Build a prototype of bioclimatic behave perfectly in all climatic zones Spanish. That is, a thermally self-regulation that can home in any climate, and therefore have a high capacity to generate heat, and generate fresh, just for its architecture. Similarly, housing should have natural devices to reduce, if necessary, the humidity inside.
- Designing a flexible housing with unique design and can enlarge or reduce the number of stays in a simple, maintaining its formal perception.
- Conduct a housing model that can be promoted on a massive scale, and allows for easy customization. That is, each potential buyer would have a single dwelling.
- Designing a home that can be completely industrialized, and most of its components can be prefabricated.
- Demonstrate that the heating system more economical and effective for a bioclimatic house is based on electric radiators, night rate.
2. Architectural Solution
To meet the ambitious goals it is crucial to choosing the appropriate architectural style. To keep warm, the house must have a compact form factor, and must have a wide glass area to the south (with appropriate sunscreen). To stay cool spaces must have very high, covered patios, and a slant in the deck that allow rapid evacuation of indoor air.
As a result we have obtained a simple and unique architectural solution, which in turn, allows a high degree of flexibility, because the owner can zoom in and the house at will. This flexibility is evident in the north of the first floor terraces, and even though user can make arbitrary changes, the visual impression, and the architectural structure remains intact.
Finally I must say that the proposed architectural structure allows a high level of customization, so much so that all homes be built Peden different. Thus, each user can have a single dwelling.
Initially built 8 houses were different, and in total it is planned to build about 100 homes spread throughout the Spanish territory, to verify their perfect bioclimatic behavior, regardless of their location.
3. Sustainable Analysis
1. Resource Optimization
1.1. Natural Resources. They take full advantage of resources such as the sun (to generate hot water and provide natural lighting to all households), the breeze, the land (to cool the housing), rain water (for watering the garden) Heather sunscreens for the roof gardens ... .. On the other hand, has installed water saving devices on taps, showers and tanks of the complex.
1.2. Resources made. The materials used are maximized, reducing potential waste through proper project and effective management. It has promoted the use of sandwich panels based on different types of boards (Viroc, Trespa, Birch plywood, corrugated iron, ...). Most of the architectural elements used were made in the factory, so the level of utilization of the resources used to maximum. Even the structure of housing is made out of prefabricated panels of lightweight concrete (walls and floors).
1.3. Resources recovered, reused and recycled.
The vast majority of building materials can be recovered (precast concrete panels, roof panels, exterior wall panels, interior separation walls, floors, woodwork, glass, wood beams, girders, deck, walkways, cabinets, wood coatings, sunscreens, health ...).
On the other hand, has promoted the use of recycled and recyclable materials such as polypropylene water pipes, drain pipes of polyethylene, OSB plywood boards for interior doors, plywood panels for coatings, recycled glass countertop kitchen and windows, etc ...
2. Decreased energy consumption
The building has been constructed with minimal energy consumption. The materials used were manufactured with a minimum amount of energy.
Due to its characteristics bioclimatic homes have a very low energy consumption standard. The houses are heated by electric storage greenhouse night rate. The hot water is generated by solar heating of the sensors built into the south facade of the whole.
The homes are cooled by geothermal architectural systems, mechanical systems and do not require conditioning, so no energy consumption.
The fact that the house is fully insulated bioclimatic makes electric heating is the best option. By using the night rate, the cost is reduced by half. Being a bioclimatic house, back down to more than half. And you have to deduct what the cost of conventional heating installations, but the cost of the floor area required.
The vast majority of materials used can be recovered easily (once the life of the building) to be reused in the construction of another building (structure, facade panels, interior panels, flooring, woodwork, glass, beams wood, metal beams, deck, walkways, cabinets, wood coatings, sunscreens, pergolas heather, health ...).
3. Using alternative energy sources
The energy used is of two types: solar thermal (solar captors to produce the ACS), and geothermal energy (architectural system to cool the air, taking advantage of existing low temperatures underground in the tunnels beneath the garage).
4. Reduced waste and emissions
The houses do not generate any emissions and do not generate any waste, except organic.
5. Improving health and wellbeing
All materials used are environmentally friendly and healthy and have no emissions that can affect human health. Similarly, the dwellings are naturally ventilated, and maximize natural lighting, which creates a healthy environment and provides the best possible quality of life for building occupants.
6. Reduced price of the building and maintenance
The homes have been designed rationally, eliminating redundant items, unnecessary or gratuitous, allowing construction to a conventional price, despite the ecological equipment includes. Similarly, the houses are very easy to maintain, regular cleaning and treatment of wood biennial vegetable oils.
4. Bioclimatic Characteristics
1.1. Heat Generation Systems
The house is heated by itself in two ways: 1. Avoiding cool: Due to its high thermal insulation and proper disposal of the glass surfaces. 2. Because of his careful and special bioclimatic design, and perfect NS orientation, housing is heated by the greenhouse effect, direct sunlight, heating by electric storage batteries nightly rate, and remains hot for a long time, due to its high inertia thermal.
1.2. Fresh Generation Systems
Housing cools itself in three ways: 1. Avoiding heat, providing most of the glass surface to the south (disposing of sunscreens for the direct and indirect solar radiation) and north, and providing adequate insulation. 2. Cooling by a cooling system architectural air through underground tunnels. On the other hand, due to high thermal inertia of the building, the accumulated fresh overnight stays for almost the entire next day. 3. Evacuating the hot air outside the housing through the upper windows of the central covered courtyard. The slant of the roof enhances the natural convection and provides an effective "chimney effect" to extract the hot air inside the house. Similarly, hot air is evacuated stays over through metal solar chimneys located on the roof garden.
3. Storage systems (heat or cool)
The heat generated during the day in winter it accumulates in the floors and load-bearing walls, keeping the house warm during the night. Similarly, the cool night generated during the summer up in the floors and load-bearing walls, keeping the house cool during the day. The roof garden high thermal inertia, reinforces this process.
4. Transfer systems (heat or cool).
The heat generated by natural radiation emissions and is distributed in the form of hot air throughout the building from the Central Conservatory. The heat accumulated in the load-bearing walls is transmitted to the radiation side stays.
The cool air generated in the underground galleries for housing is distributed through a set of grids spread over the slab of the house. On the other hand, fresh air rises through the central courtyard and through all the rooms through the vents of the Interior doors.
5. Natural ventilation
The ventilation of the building is continuously and naturally through the very walls of enclosures, allowing adequate ventilation without energy loss. This type of ventilation is possible because all materials are breathable (ceramic, lime-cement mortar, paint silicates), although the set has a behavior completely waterproof.
5. Eco-friendly materials
1. Foundations and structure.
Two sheets of drywall and insulation. The inner leaf is the load-bearing wall of reinforced concrete 15 cm. thickness (with high thermal inertia). The outer sheet is lightweight precast concrete of 6 cm. Inside there is a double sheet of hemp insulation layer of 5 cm. and a ventilated air space of 3 cm. In some parts of the facade has been replaced the outer concrete panel, a ventilated façade based Ipe wood treated with vegetable oils. The floor is made out of prefabricated concrete slabs.
The sloping walls were made through sandwich panels. The outer face of the sandwich panel was made by Trespa panels of different colors and textures (also used corrugated iron), and the inside was made by Viroc board. The interior insulation panels is formed by wood fiber, and hemp.
2. Exterior finishes
Silicate paint. Tongue and groove boards Ipe wood treated with vegetable oils, Trespa and Zinc.
3. Interior finishes
Paintings vegetables. Parquet floorings birch plywood base (Naturtek). Natural Stone Flooring. Double panel doors chipboard, veneered beech, and treated with vegetable oils.
The roof garden has an average thickness of 25 cm. of land. The sloping roof is made out of a board "sandwich" consisting of three sheets: a Viroc board (wood chips with cement) of 13 mm. thick, black layer of cork (from bark of cork oak forests on fire) of 100 mm. thick, and a birch plywood board of 13 mm. thick. This board "sandwich" is covered by a tarpaulin and corrugated iron. The beams are made of Ipe stained and treated with vegetable oils.
Polypropylene water pipes. Polyethylene drainage pipes. Energy-efficient appliances. Silestone kitchen countertops antibacterial. Walls and floors of high performance glass (anti-scratch, slip, easy cleaning, special screen ...). Pine woodwork treated with vegetable oils. Cotton canvas awnings. Shading of solid pine, treated with vegetable oils.
6. Highlights Innovations
- Building system, based on prefabricated sandwich panels.
- Experimentation with different ecological insulation materials (hemp, cork, wood fiber, coconut fiber, recycled paper, Styrodur-C, ...).
- Type simple housing which allows a perfect bioclimatic behavior at any point of Spanish geography. The prototype demonstrates that although one of the goals of the architecture is tailored to the particular climatic conditions of a certain environment, you can design flexible architectural typologies, which are perfectly suited to different climate, and provide a high level of comfort for the occupants of building without mechanical devices, with very low power consumption.
- System of de-wetting "Peltier effect", very low power consumption. The house has a perfect bioclimatic behavior, and in summer can offer, by itself, maximum temperatures around 24 º C. However, as can be constructed in unflattering environments with humidity, highly-advanced housing system provides a simple de-humidifier (for very low energy consumption), to lower the humidity inside. This will improve the comfort level of occupants, without the need for mechanical air conditioning systems.
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