DOL OFFICE ECO-BUILDING
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1. Most Important Goals
- Designing a building with infinite life. That is, a building consisting of a set of architectural components assembled so that all can be recovered, repaired, reused, or replaced with ease. Thus, the building can be preserved forever, reduce, enlarge, update or add new architectural elements in the future.
- Designing a building with a composite structure based on modular elements, which are assembled on site simply by screws. Despite being an isostatic structure, and have a very limited capacity to absorb perfect fixed-end moments at the nodes, behaves perfectly, due to its special interlocking design. Thus, it can meet all kinds of external actions vertical, horizontal and random (it has a perfect performance against earthquakes).
- Designing a detachable structure, based on lightweight concrete elements. These elements are made in the factory, are easily transportable (no need for special transportation), and assembled on site with ease, despite its weight.
- Achieving a perfect balance between the need to endow the building of a large thermal mass, and the desire to recover and reuse every one of its components. Therefore, we have chosen a structural system based on lightweight concrete slabs, oversized. These plates are joined together by means of bolts and welds in metallic elements and twinned embedded in the concrete mass of each architectural element.
- Designing an office building with zero energy consumption of non-renewable. That is, the building will be self-sufficient from an energy standpoint.
- Make an office building as healthy as possible, providing natural lighting and ventilation (no air conditioning, and can not use artificial lighting systems, as long as daylight outside). Similarly, all materials used are free of any emissions.
2. Architectural Solution
The building has a south facing elongated volume, and includes a longitudinal central patio with overhead lighting. Thus, it achieves a perfect control of sunlight (in winter the building can have the maximum amount of direct sunlight and in summer has the highest possible level of sun protection.)
The building behaves quite differently in winter or summer, and can be reconfigured easily to move from one state to another.
In winter, the building became a large greenhouse, solar radiation, obtaining the highest in the south. Underfloor heating complements the needs of building heat.
In contrast, in summer, the windows are closed completely south, through sliding panels and the building is illuminated by indirect sunlight from the north and indirect solar zenith central covered courtyard.
From a formal point of view, the composition of the building has made an apology to the reinforced concrete slabs with which it is built. Therefore, and in a poetic form, the building consists of a succession of plates, high up. Thus, the building resembles a grand staircase ascending. A "stairway to heaven."
3. Sustainable Analysis
1. Resource Optimization
1.1. Natural Resources. The maximum use of resources, such as the sun (to heat the building), the breeze, the land (to cool the building), rain water (stored in subterranean tanks and used for watering the garden and for flushing bathrooms), ... .. On the other hand, we have installed water saving devices on taps, showers and flushing toilets.
1.2. Manufactured resources. The materials used are maximized, reducing potential waste through proper project, effective management, especially because each component of the building has been individually built factory.
1.3. Resources recovered, reused and recycled.
All building materials may be recoverable, including all elements of the foundation and structure. Thus can be easily repaired, and reused in mime building, or in any other.
On the other hand, has promoted the use of recycled and recyclable materials.
2. Decreased energy consumption
The building has been constructed with minimal energy consumption. The materials used are manufactured with a minimum amount of energy because all components are factory, with absolute control. On the other hand, the building is constructed with very few resources assistants, being fully industrialized.
Due to their bioclimatic characteristics, the building has a zero energy consumption of non-renewable.
The vast majority of materials used can be recovered easily. On the other hand, the building is designed to have indefinite durability, since all building components are easily recoverable, repairable and replaceable.
3. Using alternative energy sources
The energy used is of two types: solar thermal (solar collectors for heating and ACS, and evaporation of water to air cooling) and geothermal (air refresher system taking advantage of low temperatures existing underground, in the lower galleries the suspended floor of the building).
4. Reduction of waste and emissions
The building does not generate any emissions and does not generate any waste, except organic.
5. Improving human health and welfare
All materials used are environmentally friendly and healthy, and do not have any programs that might affect human health. Similarly, the building is naturally ventilated, and maximizing natural light, creating a healthy environment and provides the best possible quality of life for its occupants.
6. Reduced price of the building and maintenance
The building is designed in a rational manner, eliminating redundant items, unnecessary, or free, allowing construction to a conventional price, despite incorporating environmental equipment.
4. Bioclimatic features
1.1. Heat Generation Systems
The building is heated by itself, in two ways: 1. Avoiding cool: Due to its high thermal insulation, and proper disposal of the glass surfaces. 2. Due to its special design and careful bioclimate tool, and its perfect NS, the building is heated by the greenhouse effect, solar radiation and solar radiant floor heating, and stays warm for a long time, due to its high thermal inertia.
1.2. Fresh Generation Systems
The building is cooled by itself, in three ways: 1. Avoiding hot, providing the bulk of the glass surface to the south (featuring shading to direct sunlight and indirect), and providing adequate insulation. 2. Cooling by a cooling system architectural air through underground tunnels. On the other hand, due to high thermal inertia of the building, the accumulated fresh overnight stays for nearly all the next day. 3. Evacuating the hot air outside the building, through solar chimneys located on the top of the central covered courtyard.
3. Storage systems (heat or cool)
The heat generated during the day in winter (greenhouse effect, solar radiation and solar radiant floor) accumulates in the floors and interior load-bearing walls of high thermal inertia. Thus, the building remains warm throughout the night without any energy consumption.
Generated during the cool summer night (for natural ventilation and outside due to lower temperature) is accumulated in the floors and interior load-bearing walls of high thermal inertia. Thus, the building remains fresh throughout the day without any energy consumption.
The roof garden (about 25 cm. Of land) high thermal inertia, and a properly insulated, helps maintain stable temperatures inside the building in winter and summer.
4. Transfer systems (heat or cool).
Since the building consists of one central room are not necessary the heat transfer systems or fresh.
5. Natural ventilation
The ventilation of the building is a continuous and natural, through the galleries below the suspended floor.
In winter, outside air enters through the hatches to the south. Enter the underground galleries and heats up. Then preheat the outside air is introduced inside the suspended floor, it goes completely, and enters the building and hot at the opposite end. This ensures a continuous ventilation without energy loss.
In summer, outside air enters through the hatches to the north. Cool in the underground galleries and insert inside the suspended floor. The cool air further back to go all the suspended floor. Thus, as air is introduced into the building cool without energy loss.
5. Outstanding innovations
- Achieve a building with an indefinite life cycle.
- Achieve a 100% industrial building, in which all components can be recovered, repaired and reused indefinitely.
- Building a building without creating any waste.
- Achieving a zero energy building, non-renewable energy.
- Achieve the added benefit of thermal solar collectors staggered so that in winter have an absolute return, and in summer make partial shade each other, avoiding the serious problems resulting from excessive, unnecessary generation of hot water generated.
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