LLIRI BLAU ECO-HOUSING COMPLEX
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1. Most Important Goals
Make an eco-exercise high-level planning for a case study in the context of conventional rules that any potential ecological characteristics.
Conduct a housing development for mass promotion (129 homes), high ecological level.
Achieving a very low selling price, ensuring a high ecological, a high level of industrialization, and high architectural quality of the whole.
The homes will have a large land area, across its cover, as a means of preserving the destroyed orchard valence of the area.
Rendering the surface of green areas of the performance is higher than the solar surface itself (the sum of the surface of the green areas of the ground floor, but the green areas of the holes at different heights, and green areas of the covered is greater than the solar surface).
2. Architectural Solution
No doubt, the most characteristic of urbanization is the provision and type of building blocks.
The blocks are separated from each other at a distance such as to ensure that all households have the highest degree of direct sunlight in winter. To accomplish this, while maximizing the degree of use permitted by the regulations, has played with the location of mandatory assignments to use half the public administration. Instead of giving the 15% average advantage in an arbitrary site, has carefully chosen its location between the projected linear blocks. This will ensure adequate separation between them, and "privatize" the space provided.
The space provided is destined to green areas, but since they are located very close between two blocks, residents outside the urban feel intimidated and do not. Thus, urbanization has "captured" these public spaces for their own enjoyment. Public spaces are divided into two, and kept separate by private parkland, where the indoor pool is private. This has increased the "privatization" of public gardens.
The blocks have a linear type, with holes inside. This will create "microclimates" and spaces that encourage coexistence and neighborly relations. The houses are terraced, two by two, and have three facades.
The blocks have a set of galleries in the north for access to different homes. These galleries allow the generation and maintenance of a large bag of fresh air running through the house by ventilation.
On the other hand, the first line of the set is made up of terraced houses. The typology of these properties allows their subsequent stays even have a high level of natural lighting.
In total there are 17 different housing types in the set. Simplex apartments of 2, 3 and 4 bedroom duplex in several bedrooms, 4 bedroom triplex and 4 bedroom townhouses and three heights.
3. Sustainable Analysis
1. Resource Optimization
1.1. Natural Resources. They take full advantage of resources such as the sun (to generate hot water and provide natural lighting to all households), the breeze, the land (to cool the housing), rain water (reserve water tanks for watering the garden), Heather for shading of the roof gardens ... .. On the other hand, has installed water saving devices on taps, showers and tanks of the complex.
1.2. Resources made. The materials used are maximized, reducing potential waste through proper project and effective management (concrete, Termoarcilla blocks, ceramic tiles, carpentry, painting, ...).
1.3. Resources recovered, reused and recycled.
The vast majority of building materials can be recovered (flooring, woodwork, glass, wood beams, girders, deck, walkways, cabinets, wood coatings, sunscreens, health ...).
On the other hand, has promoted the use of recycled and recyclable materials such as polypropylene water pipes, drain pipes of polyethylene, OSB plywood boards for interior doors, plywood panels for coatings, recycled glass countertop kitchen and windows, etc ...
2. Decreased energy consumption
The building has been constructed with minimal energy consumption. The materials used were manufactured with a minimum amount of energy.
Due to its characteristics bioclimatic homes have a very low energy consumption standard. The houses are heated by electric storage greenhouse night rate. The hot water is generated by solar heating of the sensors built into the south facade of the whole.
The homes are cooled by geothermal architectural systems, mechanical systems and do not require conditioning, so no energy consumption.
The vast majority of materials used can be easily recovered for reuse in the construction of another building (flooring, woodwork, glass, wood beams, girders, deck, walkways, cabinets, wood coatings, sunscreens, pergolas heather, health ...).
3. Using alternative energy sources
The energy used is of two types: solar thermal (solar captors to produce the ACS), and geothermal energy (architectural system to cool the air, taking advantage of existing low temperatures underground in the tunnels beneath the garage).
4. Reduced waste and emissions
The houses do not generate any emissions and do not generate any waste, except organic.
5. Improving health and wellbeing
All materials used are environmentally friendly and healthy and have no emissions that can affect human health. Similarly, the dwellings are naturally ventilated, and maximize natural lighting, which creates a healthy environment and provides the best possible quality of life for building occupants.
6. Reduced price of the building and maintenance
The homes have been designed rationally, eliminating redundant items, unnecessary or gratuitous, allowing construction to a conventional price, despite the ecological equipment includes.
4. Bioclimatic Characteristics
1.1. Heat Generation Systems
In the housing environment is very warm, so warm bioclimatic systems need not be very effective. Basically, proper insulation, which avoids energy losses, and a high level of illumination, which creates a greenhouse effect.
1.2. Fresh Generation Systems
Instead of soda bioclimatic systems, if they need to be very effective. The houses are cool by themselves, in three ways: 1. Avoiding heat: all the glazed surface providing north and south of sunscreens providing for the direct and indirect solar radiation (a set of horizontal bands protects the building from direct sunlight, and a set of blinds protect you from radiation indirect solar) and providing adequate insulation. 2. Cooling by a cooling air architecture by means of underground galleries. The air is collected in the place that is cooler in the perimeter covered patios. This air is directed to the underground galleries and cools, giving its heat to the underground walls. The fresh air comes into the housing 3. Evacuating the hot air outside of homes through solar chimneys, like a loft, in roof gardens.
3. Storage systems
The cool night generated during the summer (for natural ventilation and outside due to lower temperature) is accumulated in the floors and interior bearing walls of high thermal inertia. Thus the houses remain fresh all day without any energy consumption. During the day, homes are not heated, because soda systems used.
The roof garden (about 25 cm. Of land) high thermal inertia, as well as adequate isolation, helps to maintain stable temperatures inside the houses.
4. Transfer systems (heat or cool).
North of the apartment blocks will generate and maintain a large volume of fresh air. This air is channeled through the galleries northern distribution grids to reach the doors, through which enters the housing. The fresh air through all the rooms of the houses, across the grids of the Interior doors. When heated air rises and escapes through the top window perimeter of the facades and through a set of solar chimneys located on the roof garden. The type of housing has been designed specifically to optimize these streams of air through interior corridors.
5. Natural ventilation
The ventilation of the building is continuously and naturally through the very walls of enclosures, allowing adequate ventilation without energy loss. This type of ventilation is possible because all materials are breathable (ceramic, lime-cement mortar, paint silicates), although the set has a behavior completely waterproof.
5. Highlights Innovations
- Realization of an exercise model of eco-urbanism.
- Provision of all bioclimatic buildings management, so that all homes enjoy direct sunlight in winter (to warm up by themselves), natural light every day of the year, and natural ventilation.
- Despite its low price, the homes have a high bio-climatic. Therefore, do not need air conditioning systems in summer (although the temperature could exceed 38 degrees), and for the winter you only need one electric heating nightly rate.
- It has been shown that for a bioclimatic and energy efficient, the best heating system is electric storage base with nightly rate.
By having a high level structure of bioclimatic housing have little need for energy consumption. In fact consume only 50% of the energy of a conventional house of the same surface. On the other hand, choosing night rate, the cost of electricity is reduced to 50%. By combining both worlds, what you get is a final price of electricity by 25%. What makes it the cheapest energy available. Similarly, this increases the "quality" of electricity, and that makes 4 times more effective.
On the other hand, electric heating is the safest of all, and do not need expensive boilers or infrastructure. The set of batteries and electric radiators in each apartment has cost an average of 800 euros per household. A gas system (or similar) would cost over 7,000 euros. Therefore, an additional advantage for electric heating.
Finally, systems for gas, biomass, fuel, .... Need a large area dedicated architecture (the boiler room, etc ...) that at least takes up about 2-3 m2 per dwelling. At the average price of construction, this implies a cost of about $ 3,000. Of course, electric heat does not need this dedicated space, so it turns out to be much more economical, ecological, economical and reliable.
- Has been made 17 different types of high ecological, and very low cost of construction (about 500 per m2 built). The houses are sold at a final (2004) between 110,000 euros, cheaper housing, and 185,000 euros, more expensive housing (terraced houses).
- It has shown the economic viability of truly sustainable housing, because in two years, housing at least have doubled its value (a townhouse was sold for 410,000 euros in 2007).
- It has achieved a bioclimatic high, high energy efficiency, and a very good performance of all homes, despite the requirements of the developer, the available budget, and profit performance.
- Due to the low budget allocated by the developer to build the set, has not been possible to provide architectural mechanisms to refresh geothermal housing blocks (if paired housing). For this option has been offered a system of de-wetting "Peltier effect", very low power consumption. The housing blocks are well-behaved bioclimatic and summer remain around 24-25 º C. However, as the humidity is high, it is possible to lower the humidity level inside the housing using a simple de-humidifier, and very low power consumption. This will improve the comfort level of occupants, without the need for mechanical air conditioning systems.
- There has been a good exercise in architectural integration of solar devices. All homes have A.C.S. Sun.
- All homes have a garden. The homes of the upper floors of gardens at different heights of the blocks, and cover them.
- All homes the set have at least three fronts. This increases the quality of life of the occupants, as it increases the level of natural lighting and ventilation. Housing blocks have several "patios in heaven" (sky courts) to generate a set of beneficial microclimates, and encourage good social relationships and social activities.
- It has achieved a high level of industrialization of the whole. Even many parts of the structure have been manufactured. As a result, a large number of components Lliri Blau, can be recovered and reused without any energy consumption.
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