LA LLUM ECO-SKYSCRAPER
Low Manhattan Developement Corporation
New York. United States
45,479 m2 (each of the two skyscrapers)
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1. Most Important Goals
The history of skyscrapers "The Llum" has its origin in September 2001, in response to international architectural competition that aims to management of lower Manhattan in New York, as a result of the disaster a year ago.
The contest is a perfect opportunity for Luis de Garrido develops in detail his ideas for achieving a sustainable high-level habitat in high-rise buildings, including all known systems to ensure the welfare and safety of its occupants.
In addition to responding to all the conditions of the contest, Luis de Garrido proposed self-imposed an additional set of constraints, which solves in an efficient and elegant:
1. Very unique design ("build the light of a candle")
2. High level of sustainability
3. High level bioclimatic
4. Intelligent building equipped with the most high-tech
5. Media facade in flux.
6. Reduced visual impact (from the pedestrian point of view).
7. Extreme flexibility (compared to changes in use and needs)
8. Encouraging work at home and bring home to work
9. Extreme security against fire and air impacts
10. Ease of evacuation
11. Innovative skyscraper-type telecommunications tower
2. Architectural Solution
1. The Manhattan Llum
The answer proposed for the management of Ground Zero and Lower Manhattan has a banner on a pair of towers completely identical (740 and 750 meters high) interconnected with one another at the height of the great blue bulb (made up of offices and apartments).
Each of the two skyscrapers is composed of three parts: the lower (red bulb) devoted to offices and homes and upper body, comprising five blue cone trunks dedicated to offices, and the top dedicated to telecommunications systems .
The most characteristic feature is that the building is outside the supporting structure in order to ensure extreme flexibility in the interior, and to ensure complete protection from fire. The outer structural grid has a sensual way reminiscent of the subtle forms of the flame of a candle, giving an ethereal character, and a lightness never before achieved in a skyscraper. The outer structural grid also has another additional set of advantages: it resists torsional stresses of the building, resists perfectly the huge air velocities in upper layers and decreases the movement of the top of the skyscrapers (which, although intended only to systems telecommunications had not wanted a lot of movement)
The two skyscrapers are interconnected by gateways horizontal to provide a second alternative route of evacuation in case of a disaster.
Finally, the skyline that gives the pair of skyscrapers in New York City is a surprising strength.
Of the 270 projects submitted to the contest of ideas to sort and Ground Zero in lower Manhattan in New York, the design of "The Llum" went to the second round (with the post number 17), but not the third (in the 5 finalists left).
2. The Llum in Valencia.
3.1. Sustainable urban planning proposal
Given the achievements in the design of "The Llum" to Manhattan, Luis de Garrido continued to explore his ideas for a new sustainable habitat, and offered the city of Valencia management an important area of the city: the area between City of Arts and Sciences, and the neighborhood of Nazareth (Ecopolis Complex).
The aim is to show the citizens of Valencia as it can get a very high urban use, but based on a highly sustainable premises. Luis de Garrido therefore offered a sort based on types of houses half-buried (up to 4 levels), and a skyscraper of 501 m. high (La Llum). Thus, the whole resembling a city park without buildings, in which the skyscraper is emerging as a flame of fire.
The group achieved the same levels of urban exploitation that currently has the general urban development plan for that same city of Valencia, only it was 100% sustainable, and offered an alternative very innovative in urban development in the area.
3. Sustainable Analysis
1. Resource Optimization
1.1. Natural Resources. They take full advantage of resources such as the sun (to generate hot water, heat the greenhouse skyscrapers, and provide natural light to all offices and homes), wind, air (cold air at a high altitude existing ), earth (geothermal system to heat and cool the housing), rain water (water reservoirs), ... ..
1.2. Resources made. The materials used are maximized, reducing potential waste through proper project, a total industrialization of all components of the skyscraper, and effective management of its construction.
1.3. Resources recovered, reused and recycled.
The vast majority of building materials can be retrieved, so that the skyscraper can be removed in its entirety and all its components can be repaired in a simple manner.
On the other hand, has promoted the use of recycled and recyclable materials.
2. Decreased energy consumption
The building has been constructed with minimal energy consumption. The materials used were manufactured with a minimum amount of energy.
Due to its characteristics bioclimatic skyscraper has a very low energy consumption standard. The skyscraper is heated greenhouse, and an efficient system that generates air and geothermal hot water. On the other hand, the skyscraper is cooled through an efficient sunscreen, a geothermal generation of fresh air, and the transfer of existing outdoor air at a high altitude.
The vast majority of materials used can be recovered easily (once the life of the building) to be repaired, or used in another building.
3. Using alternative energy sources
The energy used is of two types: solar thermal (solar captors to produce the ACS, and sensors for generating photovoltaic electricity), and geothermal energy (to generate hot air and fresh air).
4. Reduced waste and emissions
The skyscraper will not generate any emissions, and has been reduced to the maximum emission of waste.
5. Improving health and wellbeing
All materials used are environmentally friendly and healthy and have no emissions that can affect human health. Similarly, the skyscraper is ventilated naturally, and because of its architectural structure, makes the most of natural light, creating a healthy environment and provides the best possible quality of life for building occupants. The interiors of the skyscraper have stepped on the outside to allow access to natural lighting.
6. Reduced price of the building and maintenance
The skyscraper was designed to have easy management, and very easy to maintain and repair. This technology has been used for more advanced control and telecommunications at the time.
4. Bioclimatic Characteristics
1.1. Heat Generation.
To generate heat in the skyscraper "The Llum" have used the following techniques:
1.1.1. Techniques to keep the winter chill skyscrapers:
He has designed a double skin of glass with an intermediate air chamber 2 meters wide. The outer skin consists of a tempered laminated glass (6-6-6), with dimensions of 3'8 m. high by 1.2 m. wide, prestressed deformed perimeter to withstand the enormous pressure of the wind speed at high altitudes, as well as material shrinkage due to temperature changes.
The exterior glass has a special screen so that sunlight passes very perpendicular to the glass (winter) and does not let the sun flush (summer). The inner skin is in turn a double glass (6 +6 +6-12-6), which has an awning and outdoor system a triple rail inside blinds. The set provides a very high isolation (kg = 0.48) that prevents energy loss in winter.
On the other hand, the core of the skyscraper closes in intermediate sections along the height of skyscrapers, preventing air circulation (only penetrates a fraction of air that allows natural ventilation of the building).
1.1.2. Techniques to heat the skyscraper
- Greenhouse effect.
The double skin of glass allows two systems to generate heat for the building. On the one hand allows solar radiation to penetrate the skyscrapers and stays hot radiation. This heat will stay overnight due to the high inertia of the set and limited energy losses. On the other hand the double skin allows a double greenhouse. The hot air generated by the camera stands between the double skin and enters into the building. If necessary, air is introduced to a mechanical system that heats the air to reach the desired temperature in the fall event, the preheated air enters directly into the interior rooms. In addition, through an ingenious system of openings of the double skin of glass is allowed in winter ventilation with preheated air through the greenhouse. This will substantially reduce energy consumption.
- Geothermal energy. Underground hot water bag.
A bag of hot underground water to heat is extracted several floors of the skyscraper (the larger rooms on the north side of building) through a radiant floor system. In the same bag generates a large volume of hot air to travel the core of skyscrapers upward.
- Solar thermal Captors.
In the southern part of the building are solar thermal sensors (vacuum tubes) located embedded in the metal mesh that is between the double skin of glass to the height of each slab. In this way the system protects from solar radiation in summer, while winter generates hot water (hot water for the skyscraper).
- High thermal inertia of the building.
The heat generated during the day by the above methods is accumulated in the building due to its high thermal inertia and keeps it hot all night. This facilitates the heating in a row the next day.
1.2. Heat Transfer (and light).
The heat is generated in the southern part of skyscrapers (in the morning also in the east and in the afternoon on the west side), so it should be moved to one side to the inside of the skyscraper and on the other side to the north of the skyscrapers. In order to generate greenhouse inside of skyscrapers (especially in the big blue bulge) has projected an ingenious solution: the inner offices are located in an intermediate position regarding the outdoors. In this way the sunlight can reach the core stays close to the building, providing natural light into every corner. Similarly, solar radiation that penetrates the interior spaces creates a greenhouse effect that contributes to their conditioning.
On the other hand, to heat the rooms north has designed a system of heat transfer through the double glass skin. Just driving (by fans who are on the inside of the double skin) the hot air generated in the southern part of the skyscraper, he goes to the north around the entire building and heating as it passes
1.3. Heat buildup.
Due to the high thermal inertia of the skyscrapers of the heat generated during the day remains accumulated during the night, keeping the rooms warm, with little power consumption.
2.1. Fresh Generation.
To generate fresh in the skyscraper "The Llum" have used the following techniques:
2.1.1. Techniques to avoid the hot summer skyscrapers:
- Protection from direct sunlight.
In areas south of the building is achieved by folding down the outer glass of the double-glass skin. This not only that heat is not generated greenhouse gases, but opaque horizontal elements (which are the solar thermal sensors) protect the glass from direct radiation. In addition, we used another complementary technique of using glass screen printed by a points system that let in sunlight very perpendicular to the glass (winter) and do not let the sun flush (summer). In this case, the hot air that is created in the double skin of glass up through the grates that serve as the separation between the floors, and escape to the outside. This circulating air vents double glass skin and removes heat gains, isolating the building.
In the areas to the east and west of the building horizontal sunscreens do not work, so that no exterior windows are lowered, and some outdoor blinds are closed to the inner skin of double glass skin. Thus the solar radiation does not reach inside the building and heated air rises in the intermediate chamber to the upper exterior, through the horizontal grids are at the height of each building's wrought.
- Protection of indirect sunlight.
This is achieved through three levels of internal blinds opaque, translucent and transparent multi-colored. This controls the amount of light in each room inside the skyscraper (between 200 and 600 lux), and the mood of workers (by the color of the blinds).
2.1.2. Techniques for cooling the skyscrapers in summer
- Generation of fresh air geothermal
There are several air vents on a circumference of 200 m. around the skyscrapers (tubes 2 m in diameter). The air entering the tubes is promoted to the subsoil below the level of an artificial lake. In this area the air is cooled by contact with the hundreds of walls of an underground labyrinth. The cooled air and amount to the central core where the skyscraper is sucked into the effect of natural convection and chimney effect inside the nucleus.
- Refresh night (circadian rhythms)
The floors of the skyscraper has a high thermal inertia, so at night it allows outside air to cool the building, and will stay fresh throughout the following day. A simple system allows evening hatches between the outside air, while day-only air enters the core (fresh air).
- Geothermal energy. Stock underground cold water.
Of the cold pack is extracted groundwater flow enough cold water to cool part of the floor by a floor heating system.
- De-wetting, spraying water.
To refresh the skyscraper has naturally made use of a simple and natural: water spray, in order to evaporate and thus, lower the temperature of the immediate environment. However, this method increases the humidity level and thus increases the feeling of embarrassment. Therefore, we first de-moisturize the air, filtering it through salts which absorb moisture, and through a mechanical device based on "Peltier effect". Second, the resulting dry air is cooled by a water spray evaporation. The result is fresh air, and moisture content with a similar or lower than the natural state of the environment.
Thus the fresh air running through the center tube is de-moisturize the middle height of each garden. On reaching the garden is constantly sprayed water (which serves as watering the garden) and generates a really cool air passing through will be the offices and homes, cooling naturally, and economically.
2.2. Transmission of Fresco.
Fresh air entering the homes and offices from the central core range throughout its surface so centrifugal, cooling in its path. The air escapes through the glass top of the inner skin of double glass skin. It creates an overpressure in the top of the room so the air out, preventing outside air from entering the rooms. In this way the rooms remain fresh throughout the day without any need for mechanical air conditioning systems.
2.3. Accumulation of Fresco.
The high thermal inertia of skyscrapers (due to heavy intermediate floors and gardens) allows the cool air generated is maintained throughout the day, with little power consumption.
5. Highlights Innovations
- Fire resistance.
The skyscraper has been designed for maximum fire protection. The steel support structure is outside the habitable volume of the building and separated by a double skin of glass. In the event of a fire originated inside the building, it is blocked by a double skin of glass before reaching the outer structure, which remains intact, ensuring security and extreme stability.
- Multimedia building.
The double skin of glass silkscreened "The Llum" is equipped with thousands of tiny multicolored LEDs, with individual control, allowing you to compose scenes and images. In addition, this double skin of glass images are projected through a set of synchronized video projectors. Thus, the images are able to manipulate the shapes and spaces, giving the whole a ethereal, weightless and immaterial. Physical spaces are mixed with virtual spaces, and can not discern where the architectural end, where visual information begins. It is therefore a true multimedia building, which changes shape and color according to circumstances.
- Self-energy of a skyscraper.
"The Llum" has a very high level of energy self-sufficiency, achieved through a proper combination of bioclimatic design, energy sources, solar, geothermal and energy sources.
- Extreme flexibility.
The skyscraper "The Llum" is designed to be as flexible as possible, and offer any type and structure necessary work, without having to make plays. A restaurant can be transformed into an office and vice versa, simply by moving walls and moving equipment, appliances and toilets. Any office can increase or decrease its surface, in a single plant or several. And if so, accounting, energy supply, levels of equipment, supplies custom mode, etc ... are performed as if it were a single space, but the activity takes place in various fractions of space at different levels.
- Ease of evacuation.
The skyscraper has been designed so it can be evacuated within minutes, in the event of any event which could endanger the lives of people who live there. This is achieved by designing the hierarchical system of elevators, the design of the stops of each and control by an expert system programmed with information about the customs of the people who inhabit it and its reaction to danger. On the other hand, the fact that skyscrapers are interconnected ensures that in the case of vertical escape routes from one of the two skyscrapers remain blocked, evacuation can be carried horizontally through the surrounding skyscrapers.
- Extreme impact and safety from fire
The skyscraper "The Llum" is designed to be difficult to topple generated in the case of a fire, explosion or impact of aircraft at high altitude. On the one hand, the impact of an aircraft at the bottom does not bring down the building because the structural design of skyscrapers allow for redistribution of loads "arch effect" around the hole. On the other hand, the top of skyscrapers is so thin that just break the wings of an aircraft, while the building remain intact. In the extremely unlikely event that the impact will be made with the aircraft fuselage (almost zero probability), one would drop the top of the building (uninhabited) and the consequences would not be higher than the impact would cause the same aircraft the floor of town.
- Positive visual impact
The image of the skyscraper is stunning, and yet very attractive and close, because its design is based on human intrinsic elements (fire, blood, hope, spirituality, life, ...).
On the other hand, from the pedestrian point of view, the skyscraper seems much lower than it actually is. This is because the top is rounded and very thin, so the sight lines have a slope much lower than they would have the visual of a skyscraper lower, but more than volume.
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