Chiva. Urbanización El Bosque. Valencia
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1. Most Important Goals
- Make a more effective alternative, from a bioclimatic point of view, the House Guaita.
- Designing a home with an architectural structure bioclimatic high efficiency, despite being built on a site on the northern slope of a hill. Therefore, to show that, regardless of the shape and orientation of a site, you can build a building with a good bioclimatic behavior.
- Conduct an exercise bioclimatic integration of thermal solar collectors.
- Experiment with new eco-friendly materials, such as tongue and groove boards based coating wood fiber, high-density monolayer organic mortars, natural stone cladding ventilated chamber, laminated flooring, security sunscreens, etc ... ..
2. Architectural Solution
As in the House Guaita (in fact Seve House is located a few meters away), the land is located on the northern slope of a hill, with magnificent views. This situation greatly complicates the design bioclimatic housing, as it makes solar yields.
To remedy the situation, the house has been built on a semi-buried in the hillside, so that you can access the garage, located north from the street below, through a small ramp. The three-storey house is available so that the top floor flush with ground level on the south facade.
The south facade of just a height, is the only means of solar radiation penetration into the building. Therefore, and in order to improve the level of solar input, is arranged on an inclined roof patio (with a large glass surface to the south), so allowing the passage of solar radiation to the inner courtyard and serves to generate a strong "chimney effect" to extract the hot air inside the housing, creating an air stream and to let the house cool air from underground tunnels.
The building consists of two houses, so that to allow access of solar radiation to the lower house, the central courtyard has a glass floor (bored to allow passage of cooling air flowing through the housing, cooling in summer).
The building structure is a reinterpretation of the Spanish patio. The rooms are arranged around a central covered courtyard. Thus, the homes stay cool in summer (when opening the upper windows of the patio, hot air is removed by chimney effect), and keep warm in winter (when they close the windows above the patio, it becomes a gases).
3. Sustainable Analysis
1. Resource Optimization
1.1. Natural Resources. Are maximized resources such as sunlight (for home heating), the breeze, the land (to cool the housing), rain water (stored in subterranean tanks and used for watering the garden and for flushing bathrooms), ... .. On the other hand, we have installed water saving devices on taps, showers and flushing toilets.
1.2. Manufactured resources. The materials used are maximized, reducing potential waste through proper project and effective management (concrete, bricks, ceramic tiles, carpentry, painting, ...). On the other hand, the proper design of housing, based on load-bearing walls, can only be built without assistive devices (such as scaffolds, cranes, etc ...).
1.3. Resources recovered, reused and recycled.
The vast majority of housing materials may be recoverable (flooring, woodwork, glass, wood beams, girders, deck, walkways, cabinets, coatings, board almond shells, sunscreens, health ...).
On the other hand, has promoted the use of recycled and recyclable materials such as polypropylene water pipes, drain pipes of polyethylene, chipboard OSB for interior doors, almond shells boards, plywood boards sloping roof, recycled glass kitchen countertops and windows, etc ...
2. Decreased energy consumption
The house was built with minimal energy consumption. The materials used are manufactured with minimal energy. On the other hand, housing has been built with little supporting resources, and with very little labor.
Due to its characteristics bioclimatic housing has a very low energy consumption standard. The house is heated greenhouse with floor heating water heated by solar collectors, with the support of a biomass boiler. Similarly, the hot water is generated by means of thermal solar collectors. Therefore, energy consumption is very low (about 20% of consumption of a conventional house of the same surface).
The house is cooled by geothermal systems architecture and requires no mechanical conditioning systems, so no energy.
The vast majority of materials used can be recovered easily (once the life of the building) to be reused in the construction of another building (flooring, woodwork, glass floor, glass doors and windows, wooden beams , girders, deck, walkways, cabinets, coatings, wood panels, solar protections, health ...). On the other hand, housing is designed to have high durability and life cycle of hundreds of years, because all components are easily serviceable housing.
3. Using alternative energy sources
The energy used is of two types: solar thermal (solar collectors for heating and ACS, and evaporation of water to air cooling) and geothermal (air refresher system taking advantage of low temperatures existing underground, in the lower galleries the suspended floor of the house).
4. Reduction of waste and emissions
Housing does not generate any emissions (except those issued by the biomass boiler, the few times that their use is necessary), and does not generate any waste, except organic. Some of these household waste are used again for treating accordingly (gray water for watering the garden). On the other hand, during the construction of the house just waste were generated, and many of them have been reused.
5. Improving health and wellbeing
All materials used are environmentally friendly and healthy, and do not have any programs that might affect human health. Similarly, the house is naturally ventilated, and maximizing natural light, creating a healthy environment and provides the best possible quality of life for building occupants.
6. Reduced price of the building and maintenance
The house is designed in a rational manner, eliminating redundant items, unnecessary, or free, allowing construction to a conventional price, despite the ecological equipment incorporated. Similarly, housing is very easy to maintain, routine cleaning, and processing wood biennial vegetable oils.
4. Bioclimatic characteristics
1.1. Heat Generation Systems
The house is heated by itself, in two ways: 1. Avoiding cool: Due to its high thermal insulation, and proper disposal of the glass surfaces. 2. Because of his careful and special bioclimatic design, and perfect NS, housing is heated by the greenhouse effect, solar radiation and solar radiant floor heating, and stays warm for a long time, due to its high thermal inertia.
1.2. Fresh Generation Systems
Housing cools itself in three ways: 1. Avoiding hot, providing the bulk of the glass surface to the south (featuring shading to direct sunlight and indirect), and providing adequate insulation. 2. Cooling by a cooling system architectural air through underground tunnels. On the other hand, due to high thermal inertia of the building, the accumulated fresh overnight stays for nearly all the next day. The fact that housing is partially buried possible that tends to stay cool, and even temperature, throughout the year. 3. Evacuating the hot air outside the housing through the upper windows of the central covered courtyard. The cover is tilted power of natural convection and provides an effective "chimney effect" to extract the hot air inside the house.
3. Storage systems (heat or cool)
The heat generated during the day in winter it accumulates in the floors and load-bearing walls, keeping the house warm during the night. Similarly, generated during the cool summer night up in the floors and load-bearing walls, keeping the house cool during the day. The roof garden high thermal inertia, reinforces this process.
4. Transfer systems (heat or cool).
The heat generated by the greenhouse effect and natural radiation is distributed in the form of hot air throughout the building from the central greenhouse. Similarly, the system of floor heating extends throughout the home. The heat accumulated in the load-bearing walls is transmitted to the radiation side rooms.
The cool air generated in the underground galleries for the housing is divided by a set of grids spread over the floor of the house. On the other hand, fresh air rises through the central courtyard and through all the rooms through the vents Interior doors.
5. Natural ventilation
The ventilation of the building is a continuous and natural, through the very walls surround, allowing adequate ventilation without energy loss. This type of ventilation is possible as all materials are breathable (ceramic, lime-cement mortar, paint silicates), although the whole performance has a completely waterproof.
5. Organic materials
1. Foundation and structure.
Wall of two leaves. The inner blade is the load bearing wall of perforated bricks 25 cm. thickness (which provides high thermal inertia). The blade is hollow brick exterior of 7 cm. Inside the double sheet is a layer of hemp insulation 5 cm. and a ventilated air space of 3 cm. (In some parts of the facade exterior sheet was made based Canexcel panels (green board high-density wood, with five layers of paint fired at high temperature) of 13 mm. Thick, arranged by battens, including an insulating layer of hemp than 5 cm, and a ventilated air space of 2 cm.) Forged semiviguetas prestressed and concrete slabs.
2. Exterior finishes
Silicate paint. Canexcel board (green board high-density wood, with five layers of paint baked at high temperature).
3. Interior finishes
Vegetable paintings. Parquet flooring for organic, processed vegetable oils. Double panel doors plywood, veneered with beech wood and treated with vegetable oils.
The roof garden has an average thickness of 25 cm. ground. The sloping roof is made based on a board "sandwich" consisting of three sheets: a Viroc board (wood chips with cement) of 13 mm. thick, black layer of cork (from bark of cork oak forests on fire) of 100 mm. thick, and a birch plywood board of 13 mm. thick. This board "sandwich" is covered by tar paper and corrugated iron. The beams are made of Ipe dyed and treated with vegetable oils.
Polypropylene water pipes. Polyethylene drainage pipes. Energy-efficient appliances. Silestone kitchen countertops antibacterial. Walls and floors of high-performance glass (anti-scratch, slip, easy clean, special screen ...). Iroko wood carpentry treated with vegetable oils. Cotton canvas awnings. Canexcel shading board (green board high-density wood, with five layers of paint baked at high temperature).
6. Outstanding innovations
- Ventilated facades using panels manufactured from wood fibers of high density, with five layers of paint baked at high temperatures.
- Proper and effective architectural integration of thermal solar collectors.
- Float glass floors
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