Private Virgin of Montserrat, Valencia
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1. Most Important Goals
- Plan a low budget housing.
- Projecting a high bioclimatic housing without heating or mechanical conditioning.
2. Architectural Solution
Due to the limited buildable area of the site, the house has an architectural style that maximizes the available space, and at the same time has achieved a perfect bioclimatic behavior.
In this sense, the double-height central space is the living room of the house. In this space are focused on other rooms of the house, sharing the same temperature.
The formal structure of the house represents and reflects the cult surrenders to the use of load bearing wall in the composition of buildings with high bioclimatic. Wall burden greatly increases the inertia of the building, and is able to store heat or cool, and maintain a stable temperature inside the building.
3. Sustainable Analysis
1. Resource Optimization
1.1. Natural Resources. Are maximized resources such as sunlight (for home heating), the wind, water and earth (to cool the housing), rain water (for watering the garden and flushing toilets), .... . On the other hand, we have installed water saving devices on taps, showers and flushing toilets.
1.2. Manufactured resources. The materials used are maximized, thus preventing any waste through proper project and effective management (concrete, concrete blocks, wood joinery, plywood, paint, ...). On the other hand, the proper design of housing, based on load-bearing walls, can only be built without assistive devices (such as scaffolds, cranes, etc ...).
1.3. Resources recovered, reused and recycled.
The vast majority of housing materials may be recoverable (cover, woodwork, glass, wood beams, girders, walkways, stairs, cabinets, wood coatings, sunscreens, health ...).
On the other hand, has promoted the use of recycled and recyclable materials such as polypropylene water pipes, drain pipes of polyethylene, chipboard OSB for interior doors, plywood panels for coatings, recycled glass countertops the kitchen, floors, stairs and windows, etc ...
Finally, it has made extensive use of recovered materials (waste) and recycled materials, such as wooden beams, furniture, flooring and accessories.
2. Decreased energy consumption
The house was built with minimal energy consumption. The vast majority of the materials used were manufactured using a minimal amount of energy. On the other hand, housing has been built with little supporting resources, and with very little labor.
Due to its characteristics bioclimatic housing has a very low energy consumption standard. The house is heated by a fireplace emissions and biomass. The hot water is generated by two thermal solar collectors. The house is cooled by geothermal systems architecture and spraying water, and requires no mechanical conditioning systems, so it does not consume energy for cooling.
The vast majority of materials used can be recovered easily (once the life of the building) to be reused in the construction of another building (deck, beams, bridge, staircase, ceramic tile, windows, shutters, doors ..). On the other hand, housing is designed to have high durability and life cycle of hundreds of years, because all components are easily serviceable housing.
3. Using alternative energy sources
The energy used is of two types: Solar Thermal (two solar collectors for the ACS, and evaporation of water to air cooling) and geothermal (refresh system taking advantage of low air temperature at 2 meters underground in the galleries below the suspended floor of the house).
4. Reduction of waste and emissions
Housing does not generate any emissions and does not generate any waste, except organic. Some of these household waste are used again for treating accordingly (gray water for watering the garden). On the other hand, during the construction of the house just waste were generated.
5. Improving health and wellbeing
All materials used are environmentally friendly and healthy, and do not have any programs that might affect human health. Similarly, the house is naturally ventilated, and maximizes natural light (no artificial lighting can be used as long as natural lighting) creating a healthy environment and provides the best possible quality of life for building occupants .
6. Reduced price of the building and maintenance
The house has been designed rationally, and most of its components are industrialized, eliminating redundant items, unnecessary, or free, allowing construction to a greatly reduced price, despite the ecological equipment incorporated. Similarly, housing is almost maintenance: Regular cleaning and treatment of wood biennial vegetable oils.
4. Bioclimatic characteristics
1.1. Heat Generation Systems
The house is heated by itself, in two ways: 1. Avoiding cool: Due to its high thermal insulation, and having most of the glass surface to the south. 2. Because of his careful and special bioclimatic design, and perfect NS, housing is heated by the greenhouse effect, solar radiation and biomass fireplace.
1.2. Fresh Generation Systems
Housing cools itself in three ways: 1. Avoiding hot, providing the bulk of the glass surface just south and west, providing sun protection for the direct and indirect solar radiation (a type of protection different for each of the holes with different orientation), and providing isolation appropriate. 2. Cooling by a cooling system architectural air through underground tunnels. Outside air space north shaded cool in a pond in which water is sprayed. Through a hatch this air enters the galleries beneath the suspended floor. This space eventually fills with water. Once inside, the air gives up its heat to the labyrinth of walls in these galleries, and cool. Air enters the housing through openings in the central area, where a fountain with a spray of water, through which the air cools a bit more (this is possible because the humidity is not high .) On the other hand, due to high thermal inertia of the building, the accumulated fresh overnight stays for nearly all the next day. 3. Evacuating the hot air outside the housing through the upper windows of the central zone. The cover is tilted power of natural convection and provides an effective "chimney effect" to extract the hot air inside the house.
3. Storage systems (heat or cool)
The heat generated during the day in winter it accumulates in the floors and load-bearing walls, keeping the house warm during the night. Similarly, generated during the cool summer night up in the floors and load-bearing walls, keeping the house cool during the day. The roof garden high thermal inertia, reinforces this process.
4. Transfer systems (heat or cool).
The heat generated by the greenhouse effect and natural radiation is distributed in the form of hot air throughout the building from the central zone. Similarly, the heat accumulated in the load-bearing walls is transmitted to the radiation side rooms.
The cool air generated in the underground galleries for the housing is divided by a set of grids spread over the floors.
5. Natural ventilation
The ventilation of the building is continuously and naturally through the very walls surround, allowing adequate ventilation without energy loss. This type of ventilation is possible as all materials are breathable (concrete, hemp insulation, paint silicates), although the whole performance has a completely waterproof.
5. Organic materials
1. Foundation and structure.
Double-leaf walls and insulation. The inner leaf is the base load wall of concrete blocks of 20 cm. thickness (with high thermal inertia, and are filled with concrete or sand). The outer leaf is built with bricks of 7 cm. Inside the double sheet is a layer of black cork insulation of 5 cm. and a ventilated air space of 3 cm. The floor is made out of prefabricated concrete slabs.
2. Exterior finishes
Silicate paint. Tongue and groove boards and battens, pine of Sweden, heat treated and dyed with vegetable oils.
3. Interior finishes
Vegetable paintings. Parquet flooring for green, and treated with vegetable oils. Double panel doors plywood, beech plywood, and treated with vegetable oils.
Roof garden, with an average thickness of 25 cm. ground. Sloping based sandwich board comprising: Viroc top board (wood chips and cement) of 13 mm, bottom panel birch plywood 13 mm, and internal insulation crushing black cork 10 cm. thick. Based coating with a layer of rubber, and a layer of heather fabric.
Polypropylene water pipes. Polyethylene drainage pipes. Energy-efficient appliances. Silestone kitchen countertops antibacterial. Walls and floors of high-performance glass (anti-scratch, slip, easy clean, special screen ...). Pine woodwork treated with vegetable oils. Cotton canvas awnings. Sunscreens solid pine wood, treated with vegetable oils.
6. Outstanding innovations
Coatings - waterproofing using sheets of rubber.
- Covered with heather fabric.
- Air cooling system with water spray outside, and flooding of water in the chamber below the suspended floor.
- Types of energy-efficient housing. Housing consumes only 20% of what it consumes a conventional house, built with the same surface.
- The house needs no air conditioning or heating system, only a small stack of biomass.
- Lower cost of construction
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