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1. Most Important Goals
- Designing a home with an architectural structure bioclimatic high efficiency to respond properly to extreme climatic conditions of the area (- 5 ° to 40 °), so you do not need any system I mechanical conditioning, or winter, or summer.
- Make a proper exercise of architectural integration of solar captors, without the usual decrease in efficiency of the proposed standard.
- Integrate a pool at a home, so that does not affect their bioclimatic behavior and may be used comfortably all year round, heated by solar thermal captors. You can access the pool water directly from the Central Conservatory, without going outside the building, and in turn the pool remains independent of the home, not to increase their level of humidity and prevent condensation.
2. Architectural Solution
The house is located in the Sierra del sword, in Castellón, with very cold winters and hot summers.
Because of the experience gained in the design of the House Blasco, we have tried to make a second variation of the same architectural style in order to experience more, and improve the bioclimatic performance of it, when faced with an equally warm environment in summer, but much colder in winter.
In this case, it has made changes to the typology, and glass surfaces available sunscreens in order to ensure that housing does not need any mechanical system of soda. Instead, it has had a geothermal system architectural refresh very effective.
To cope with low temperatures in winter, the house can easily turn into a huge greenhouse, and also has arranged a system of floor heating, solar powered hot water. The house does not need any backup boiler.
3. Sustainable Analysis
1. Resource Optimization
1.1. Natural Resources. They take full advantage of resources such as sunlight (for home heating and electricity generation), the breeze, the land (to cool the housing), rain water (for watering the garden and flushing toilets), .... . On the other hand, has installed water saving devices on taps, showers and flush toilets.
1.2. Resources made. The materials used are maximized, reducing potential waste through proper project and effective management (concrete, bricks, ceramic tiles, carpentry, painting, ...). On the other hand, proper housing design, based on load-bearing walls, can only be built without assistive devices (such as scaffolds, cranes, etc ...).
1.3. Resources recovered, reused and recycled.
The vast majority of housing materials can be recovered (flooring, woodwork, glass, wood beams, girders, deck, walkways, cabinets, wood coatings, sunscreens, health ...).
On the other hand, has promoted the use of recycled and recyclable materials such as polypropylene water pipes, drain pipes of polyethylene, OSB plywood boards for interior doors, plywood panels and sloping roof coatings, recycled glass kitchen countertops and windows, etc ...
2. Decreased energy consumption
The house is built with minimal energy consumption. The materials used were manufactured with a minimum amount of energy. On the other hand, housing has been built with little supporting resources, and with very little labor.
Due to its characteristics bioclimatic housing has a very low energy consumption standard. The house is heated greenhouse with floor heating water heated by solar captors. Similarly, hot water is generated through solar thermal captors. Because of the enormous thermal inertia of the housing, and the degree of sunlight the site, solar heating system does not need any backup boiler, so no energy for heating.
The house is cooled by geothermal architectural systems, mechanical systems and requires no packaging, so there is no power consumption.
The vast majority of materials used can be recovered easily (once the life of the building) to be reused in the construction of another building (flooring, woodwork, glass, wood beams, girders, deck, walkways, cabinets, wood coatings, sunscreens, health ...).
3. Using alternative energy sources
The energy used is of two types: solar thermal (solar heating captors and the ACS, and evaporation of water to air cooling) and photovoltaic, and geothermal (fresh air system taking advantage of low temperature at 2 meters below ground , in the galleries below the floor slab of the house).
4. Reduced waste and emissions
The property does not generate any emissions and does not generate any waste, except organic. Some of these household waste are used again to treat them accordingly (gray water for watering the garden). On the other hand, during the construction of the house just waste were generated, and many of them have been reused.
5. Improving health and wellbeing
All materials used are environmentally friendly and healthy and have no emissions that can affect human health. Similarly, the house is naturally ventilated, and maximizes natural light (artificial lighting can not be used as long as natural lighting), which creates a healthy environment and provides the best possible quality of life for building occupants .
6. Reduced price of the building and maintenance
The house has been designed in a rational way, removing unnecessary items, unnecessary or gratuitous, allowing construction to a conventional price, despite the ecological equipment includes. Similarly, housing is very easy to maintain, regular cleaning and treatment of wood biennial vegetable oils.
4. Bioclimatic Characteristics
1.1. Heat Generation Systems
The house is heated by itself in two ways: 1. Avoiding cool: Due to its high thermal insulation, large glass surfaces and having just south and east, and none to the north. 2. Because of his careful and special bioclimatic design, and perfect NS orientation, housing is heated by the greenhouse effect, direct sunlight and solar radiant floor heating, and stays warm for a long time, due to its high thermal inertia.
1.2. Fresh Generation Systems
Housing cools itself in three ways: 1. Avoiding heat, providing most of the glass surface just to the south and west, providing sun protection for the direct and indirect solar radiation (a type of protection different for each of the holes in different directions) and providing isolation appropriate. 2. Cooling by a cooling system architectural air through underground tunnels. On the other hand, due to high thermal inertia of the building, the accumulated fresh overnight stays for almost the entire next day. 3. Evacuating the hot air outside the housing through the upper windows of the central covered courtyard. The slant of the roof enhances the natural convection and provides an effective "chimney effect" to extract the hot air inside the house.
3. Storage systems (heat or cool)
The heat generated during the day in winter it accumulates in the floors and load-bearing walls, keeping the house warm during the night. Similarly, the cool night generated during the summer up in the floors and load-bearing walls, keeping the house cool during the day. The roof garden high thermal inertia, reinforces this process.
4. Transfer systems (heat or cool).
The heat generated by natural radiation emissions and is distributed in the form of hot air throughout the building from the Central Conservatory. Similarly, the system of floor heating extends throughout the house. The heat accumulated in the load-bearing walls is transmitted to the radiation side stays.
The cool air generated in the underground galleries for housing is distributed through a set of grids spread over the slab of the house. On the other hand, fresh air rises through the central courtyard and through all the rooms through the vents of the Interior doors. The fresh air vents of the mechanical system coincides with the outputs of bioclimatic architectural system.
5. Natural ventilation
The ventilation of the building is a continuous and natural, the walls themselves through enclosures, allowing adequate ventilation without energy loss. This type of ventilation is possible because all materials are breathable (ceramic, lime-cement mortar, paint silicates), although the set has a behavior completely waterproof.
5. Eco-friendly materials
1. Foundations and structure.
Wall of two leaves. The inner leaf is the load-bearing brick wall perforated 25 cm. thickness (with high thermal inertia). The blade is hollow brick exterior of 7 cm. Inside there is a double sheet of hemp insulation layer of 5 cm. and a ventilated air space of 3 cm. (In some parts of the facade exterior sheet has been made out of painted Viroc panels of 13 mm. Thick, arranged by battens, including a hemp insulation layer of 5 cm, and a ventilated air space 2 cm.) semiviguetas Forged prestressed and concrete vaults.
2. Exterior finishes
Silicate paint. Ipe wood stained and treated with vegetable oils.
3. Interior finishes
Paintings vegetables. Flooring tile porcelain tile. Double doors plywood board, beech plywood, and treated with vegetable oils.
The roof garden has an average thickness of 25 cm. of land. The sloping roof is made out of a board "sandwich" consisting of three sheets: a Viroc board (wood chips with cement) of 13 mm. thick, black layer of cork (from bark of cork oak forests on fire) of 100 mm. thick, and a birch plywood board of 13 mm. thick. This board "sandwich" is covered by asphalt and Moorish tiles. The beams are made of Ipe stained and treated with vegetable oils.
Polypropylene water pipes. Polyethylene drainage pipes. Energy-efficient appliances. Iroko wood carpentry treated with vegetable oils. Cotton canvas awnings. Shading Ipe hardwood, treated with vegetable oils. All woods used have a certificate of origin with selective logging and ecological treatment (FSC).
6. Highlights Innovations
- Type of energy-efficient architecture. Housing consumes only 20% of the energy of a conventional house, with the same floor area.
- Captor of wind and geothermal air cooling by means of underground galleries, taking advantage of the space under the floor slab.
- Correct architectural integration of solar captors.
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