Green Research Center and Rural Tourism ACTIO
1730'27 m2 (Land: 34,766 m2)
(Described as "model project for Humanity" at Expo 2000 in Hannover)
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1. Most Important Goals
- Regenerate natural environment really degraded
- Integrate the architectural perfectly in the environment
- Build a multipurpose architectural complex, including three buildings that are intended as models of three different proposals of sustainable architecture.
- Construct a building complex without generating waste, or emissions of any kind.
- Use only salvaged, reused or recycled.
- Reduce the maximum energy consumption and alternative energy use only.
- Making the most of natural resources (sun, wind, rain)
- Reduce at least 50% the cost of construction
- Build a completely self-sufficient complex (water supply, power supply, reuse of waste, food supply)
2. Architectural Solution
The environment in which is located the building was completely degraded (in the process of desertification, and with a high erosion, due to occasional floods caused by rain water. Therefore, in the first place has been enhanced a complete ecological reforestation, and carefully studying the most convenient location of the three buildings of the complex.
1. Building A is a center for cultural activities, training and research. At the same time is for youth accommodation with stays of varying lengths, as well as families on weekends. The architectural structure is very simple and consists of three parts. The central part is the reception and distribution space, and has three floors. The structure aisles meeting spaces and bedrooms around the corridors of distribution.
The project has been proposed as a model of sustainability extreme highly developed countries. The building completely self-sufficient in every way, offering every comfort.
2. Building B, is designed to workshops and educational activities.
The project has been proposed as a model of sustainability very low cost, therefore, can serve as reference for the development of less developed countries. It is an example of what can be done with very little, using all types of waste and reusable materials.
3. Building C is an Eco-Museum.
The project has been proposed as a model of sustainability vernacular, as it has a structure similar to the architectural vernacular of the area. The building has been built solely with waste and excess.
Materials left over from the construction of Building A, and recovered and reused materials, has built the building B. Materials left over from the construction of Building B, along with several residues, has been built Building C. Finally, with the few remaining waste has been built part of the furniture and filling have been used for the construction of small hills of soil in the forest area of the complex.
3. Sustainable Analysis
1. Resource Optimization
1.1. Natural Resources. They take full advantage of resources such as the sun (to heat the house), the wind and earth (to cool the housing), rain water (for watering the garden and flushing toilets), rocks of the place ( to build load-bearing walls of buildings), grass and heather (for covering sloping roofs), reeds (for the sun visor), pruned tree trunks (for the structure of the umbrellas), hemp (for insulation), cork black (for insulation) ... .. On the other hand, has installed water saving devices on taps, showers and tanks of the complex.
1.2. Resources made. The materials used are maximized, thus avoiding possible waste through proper project and effective management (concrete, bricks, wood joinery, plywood, paint, ...). On the other hand, the correct design of the building, based on load-bearing walls, can only be built without assistive devices (such as scaffolds, cranes, etc ...).
1.3. Resources recovered, reused and recycled.
The vast majority of building materials may be recoverable and reusable (woodwork, glass, wood beams, girders, decks, stairs, walkways, cabinets, wood coatings, sunscreens, health ...).
On the other hand, has promoted the use of recycled and recyclable materials such as polypropylene water pipes, drain pipes of polyethylene, OSB plywood boards for interior doors, plywood panels for coatings, recycled glass countertop kitchen and windows, etc ...
Finally, it has made extensive use of recovered materials (waste) and reused materials. Some examples are:
- Tires worn to make the sills of the buildings
- Plastic Packaging for the waterproofing of the soldiers
- With clean sludge trucks compacted concrete has been the bed of a creek that runs through the complex.
- With the boards from the pallets (wooden bases are served in the building materials) has built a small bridge across the creek.
- Wooden beams for the sloping roof, from demolition in neighboring municipalities.
-Windows, lintels of doors, gates, ...
2. Decreased energy consumption
The buildings have been constructed with minimal energy consumption. The materials used were manufactured with a minimum amount of energy. On the other hand, the buildings were built with little supporting resources, and with very little labor.
Due to its characteristics bioclimatic buildings have zero consumption of conventional energy is not renewable. The buildings are heated by greenhouse gases and a system of floor heating powered by solar thermal sensors 35 (which also provide the necessary hot water, and heat the pool water). The backup boiler is biomass.
On the other hand, the buildings are cooled by means of bioclimatic architectural systems, so you do not have any energy.
The vast majority of materials used can be recovered easily (once the life of the building) to be reused in the construction of another building (wooden beams, roofing, ceramic tiles, windows, shutters, fences, doors. .). On the other hand, the buildings have been designed to have high durability and life cycle of hundreds of years, since all its components are easily repairable. In this way, it makes sense to talk of dismantling, but ongoing maintenance, with very low power consumption.
3. Using alternative energy sources
The energy used is of two types: solar thermal (solar captors for the ACS and underfloor heating, and evaporation of water to air cooling), and geothermal energy (air refresh system taking advantage of low temperatures to 2 feet below existing land, in underground galleries). The buildings are partially buried, so that its temperature tends to remain stable throughout the year.
4. Reduced waste and emissions
The buildings do not generate any emissions (except those generated by the biomass boiler, on the few occasions that its use is necessary) and do not generate any waste other than organic. Some of these household waste are used again to treat them accordingly (gray water for watering the garden). On the other hand, during the construction of buildings has not generated any type of waste (all were used).
5. Improving health and wellbeing
All materials used are environmentally friendly and healthy and have no emissions that can affect human health. Similarly, the buildings are naturally ventilated, and maximize natural lighting (artificial lighting can not be used as long as natural lighting), which creates a healthy environment and provides the best possible quality of life for its occupants.
6. Reduced price of the building and maintenance
The buildings are designed in a rational way, removing unnecessary items, unnecessary or gratuitous, allowing construction to a greatly reduced price, despite the ecological equipment includes. For example, paintings were used as mortars used were colored chases were not performed for the facility, not used ornaments, ... .. Similarly, the buildings need a low maintenance: Regular cleaning and treatment of wood biennial vegetable oils.
4. Bioclimatic Characteristics
1.1. Heat Generation Systems
The buildings are heated by themselves in two ways: 1. Avoiding cool: Due to its high thermal insulation, and having most of the glass surface to the south. 2. Because of his careful and special bioclimatic design, and perfect NS orientation, the buildings are heated by greenhouse gases, direct sunlight and radiant floor heating based on solar-heated water.
1.2. Fresh Generation Systems
The buildings are cool by themselves, in three ways: 1. Avoiding heat, providing most of the glass surface just to the south and west, providing sun protection for the direct and indirect solar radiation, and providing adequate insulation. 2. Cooling by a cooling system architectural air through underground tunnels. Two wind sensors pick up the fresh air from the north and channel them to a set of underground tunnels beneath the floor slab. The air transfers its heat to the labyrinth of walls in these galleries, and cool. The air enters the building through vents in the central courtyard, where there is a fountain with a spray of water, through which the air cools a bit more (this is possible because the humidity is not high ). On the other hand, due to high thermal inertia of the buildings, the accumulated fresh overnight stays for almost the entire next day. The fact that the buildings are partially buried enables the temperature tends to stay consistent throughout the year. 3. Evacuating the hot air outside of buildings, through attics and two large central space. Its special architectural form enhances the natural convection and provides an effective "chimney effect" to extract the hot air inside buildings.
3. Storage systems (heat or cool)
The heat generated during the day in winter (greenhouse effect, direct sunlight and heating system underfloor solar) accumulates on the floors and interior bearing walls of high thermal inertia. Thus the buildings remain hot throughout the night, with little power consumption.
The cool night generated during the summer (for natural ventilation and outside due to lower temperature) is accumulated in the floors and interior bearing walls of high thermal inertia. Thus, the buildings remain fresh throughout the day without any energy consumption.
The roof garden (about 25 cm. Of land) high thermal inertia, as well as adequate insulation, stable temperature inside the building, which is kept warm at night and cool during the day.
4. Transfer systems (heat or cool).
The heat generated by the greenhouse effect, natural radiation and underfloor heating is distributed in the form of hot air throughout the building by the distribution center aisles. Similarly, the accumulated heat load on the walls of the rooms is transmitted to subsequent radiation.
The cool air generated in the underground galleries are distributed in buildings, through a set of grids spread over the floors.
5. Natural ventilation
The ventilation of buildings is made, continuously and naturally through the very walls of enclosures, allowing adequate ventilation without energy loss. This type of ventilation is possible because all materials are breathable (ceramic, lime-cement mortar, paint silicates), although the set has a behavior completely waterproof compared to rainfall.
5. Eco-friendly materials
1. Foundations and structure.
Double-leaf walls. The inner leaf is the load-bearing wall of concrete blocks 20 cm. thickness (with high thermal inertia, as they have been filled with concrete or sand). The blade is hollow brick exterior of 7 cm. Inside there is a double sheet of hemp insulation layer of 5 cm. and a ventilated air space of 3 cm. (In some parts of the facade exterior sheet has been made out of birch plywood panels prepared by battens, including a hemp insulation layer of 5 cm, and a ventilated air gap of 2 cm.) Semiviguetas Forged prestressed, and concrete vaults.
There are interior walls are batteries made out of concrete formwork stones there.
2. Exterior finishes
Lime mortar with sand (hydrophobic). Birch plywood treated with vegetable oils.
3. Interior finishes
Paintings vegetables. Flooring continuous grinding mortar base colored with natural pigments. Solid doors based on two DM chipboard, and treated with vegetable oils.
Roof garden, with an average thickness of 25 cm. of land. Pitched roof sandwich panel based consists of: top Viroc board (wood chips and cement) of 13 mm, bottom board of birch plywood 13 mm, and internal insulation crushing black cork 10 cm. thick. Based coating rubber sheets and corrugated iron.
Polypropylene water pipes. Polyethylene drainage pipes. Energy-efficient appliances. Pine woodwork treated with vegetable oils. Cotton canvas awnings. Shading of solid pine, treated with vegetable oils. All woods used have a certificate of origin with selective logging and ecological treatment (FSC).
6. Highlights Innovations
- Strategies for reducing costs in construction. ACTIO The complex has cost 50% of the cost of similar conventional buildings.
1. We have designed a construction system that eliminates the need for aids, and allows the use of low-skilled labor.
2. Have been ennobled by natural materials and architectural design communities, which are very cheap.
3. Chapters have been removed in the construction (painting, clearing, flooring, decorations ...).
4. The buildings have been self-managed without promoter. On the other hand, the property has hired and controlled directly by the team responsible for constructing the complex.
- Type of energy-efficient architecture. The complex of buildings consumes only 10% of what it consumes a conventional building with the same floor area and the same use.
- Air cooling system using wind catchers
- Ecological system of treatment and purification of drinking water, without using chlorine.
- Wall construction system of high thermal load, made of concrete and stones of the place.
- Health System floating slab construction (on a bed of sand), based on used tires, and polished concrete.
- It should be noted that for all the characteristics described above, ACTIO Complex, was rated "A model for Humanity project at Expo 2000 in Hanover." It was exhibited in the Pavilion of the Future during the month of September and October of 2000.
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