Non più meri spazi per la catalogazione e la consultazione di libri, ma luoghi d’incontro, socializzazione e, perché no, di relax: sono le biblioteche del ventunesimo secolo.
Un esempio significativo di questa nuova politica architettonica, culturale e gestionale è la Umimirai Library
di Kanazawa (Giappone), progettata da Kazumi Kudo + Hiroshi Horiba Architects e Coelacanth K&H Architects.
“Uno spazio piacevole e confortevole per sperimentare la gioia della lettura, circondati da un tesoro fatto di libri”: con queste parole gli autori del progetto hanno definito l’opera. “Volevamo creare una certa atmosfera per la lettura, progeguono gli architetti. Un esempio positivo di tale tipo di spazio è l’antica Bibliotheque Nationale (Biblioteca Nazionale) di Parigi, progettata da Henri Labrouste, un capolavoro realizzato utilizzando le più avanzate tecnologie costruttive in acciaio del 19esimo secolo. L'edificio è connotato da un rapporto continuo tra libri ed esseri umani, che muta e si evolve, che trascende il tempo e la storia”.
La Umimirai Library, composta da un’unica sala, silenziosa e tranquilla, simile a un bosco, pieno di luce soffusa, consta di un unico spazio, ampio 45 m x 45 m, alto circa 12 m, protetto da una pelle punzonata, sostenuto da 25 pilastri.
Tutta la superficie della facciata esterna è segnata da circa 6.000 piccole aperture (ampie 200, 250 e 300 mm) che permettono alla luce naturale di illuminare morbidamente e uniformemente l'edificio. Un sistema di riscaldamento e raffreddamento a pavimento radiante e le grandi aperture sul tetto dell’edificio creano le giuste condizioni climatiche per vivere piacevolmente la struttura durante tutti i mesi dell’anno.
A library for the future
Reading - for the sake of knowledge or enjoyment, or to explore the world of the human imagination - is one of those experiences that gives you a sense of emotional and spiritual richness quite different from economic or monetary well-being. In this sense, the act of creating a space that surrounds you with books is undoubtedly linked to the creation of a new, enriched sense of public values.
Libraries in Japan are moving towards a model that encourages readers to stay and linger, instead of their original function as spaces for collecting and lending out books. Reflecting the general trend for libraries to facilitate reading as well as other functions, this library uses compact automated shelves that operate as a closed stack system. This is combined with halls and meeting rooms that promote social exchange between its users, much like a community center. The facility is also expected to serve as a new hub for social life among the local community.
For a public library such as this, we thought that the most important thing to have would be a reading room that provides visitors with a pleasant, comfortable space to read. This environment would allow users to experience the joy of reading while surrounded by a treasure trove of books with a overwhelming physical presence, something that the convenience of electronic and digital books cannot offer. For this project, we proposed a simple space measuring 45m by 45m with a height of about 12m, enclosed by a "punching wall" and supported by 25 pillars that would function as a storehouse for books and a hub for human communication. This huge, massive volume served as a reading space in keeping with the mood and setting of a library.
What we wanted to do, in other words, was to design a certain "atmosphere" for books and reading. This library consists of a single quiet and tranquil room that resembles a forest, filled with soft light and a feeling of openness reminiscent of the outdoors. One successful example of such a space is the old Bibliotheque Nationale (National Library) in Paris designed by Henri Labrouste, a masterpiece that was built using the most advanced steel construction technologies of the 19th century. The building represents a continuous relationship that brings books and humans together even as it changes and evolves, transcending time and history. This simple box-like form also contains within it a certain freedom, however: this is a space that permits a composite mix of various media that will continue to change and evolve against the backdrop of an information-centered age.
The overall structure of the library resembles an internal three-layered floor covered with a large box that we refer to as a "cake box". The large external "punching wall" in the cavernous reading room features some 6,000 small openings (measuring 200, 250 and 300mm) across its entire surface that allow a soft, uniform light to enter the building. In addition, the burden of seismic force from any earthquakes is born across the entire expanse of this wall. A floor heating system that warms and cools the building under the floor has been installed in order to make this large space comfortable to inhabit, while large natural ventilation openings in the roof ensure a pleasant and comfortable indoor environment during the warmer months. Calibrated and calculated with the utmost precision, this beautiful "cake box" space will hopefully become a new symbol of the western part of Kanazawa, a city that continues to face rapid urbanization.
Architecture : Kazumi Kudo + Hiroshi Horiba / Coelacanth K&H Architects
Photography: Satoshi Asakawa
Client : Kanazawa City
Location : Kanazawa city, Ishikawa prefecture, Japan
Date of Completion : 2011.03
Principal Use : Library
Structure : Steel frame, reinforced concrete (partly)
Site Area: 11,763.43 m2
Building area : 2,311.91 m2
Total Floor Area : 5,641.90 m2 (469.06m2/B1F, 2,071.89m2/1F, 2,065.79m2/2F, 832.23m2/3F)
Design Period : 2008.08-09.06
Construction Period : 2009.09-11.03
Structural Engineer : Structural Design Office OAK
Mechanical Engineer : Electrical facilities: Setsubikeikaku, Machinery: Scientific Air-conditioning Institute
Supervision : Kazumi Kudo + Hiroshi Horiba / Coelacanth K&H Architects
Interior Design : Furniture: Fujie Kazuko Atelier, Lighting: Koizumi Lighting Technology
Landscape Design : Soichiro Tsukamoto Architecte de Paysages (Basic design)
Exterior Finish :
-Roof：Asphalt waterproofing with torch method, acrylic resin emulsion paint high gloss type
-Exterior wall：Glass-fiber reinforced cement, fluoropolymer coating, photocatalyst KBL coating on glass surface
-Window：Aluminum sash/ Steel sash/ Stainless sash
-Exterior: Trees and plants: Zelkova, Quercus myrsinifolia, Ilex pedunculosa, Quereur phillyraeoides and others
-Pavement: Permeable concrete/ Asphalt
Floor : 6.5 mm tile carpet/ 5 mm rubber floor tile/ 15 mm compound floorings maple
Wall : 3.2mm steel panel, 1.6 mm synthetic resin base ready-mixed paint/ 9.5 + 12.5 mm plaster
board, Synthetic resin emulsion paint/ 6 mm incombustible veneer
Ceiling : 12 mm rock wool board/25mm 80kg/m3 glass wool
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