GEODA 2055 ECO-CITY
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1. Most Important Goals
- Expand the town of Mondragon on a quarry adjacent to its city limits, and at the same time to recover the degraded ecosystem.
- Create an architectural symbol of the town of Mondragon, inspired by some of his most prized cultural references (the cooperative, teamwork, character of the Basque people).
- Propose most appropriate architectural typologies to society
Typologies local, that will evolve to be more effective
Types with high spatial reconfiguration and flexibility
Simple types, for housing
- To propose constructive strategies most appropriate for society
Which allow a high level of industrialization
Which allow a high level of prefabrication
Allowing for greater ease, speed and economy of construction
- Achieve energy self-sufficiency of all
- Achieving self-sufficiency of the whole water
- Achieving food self-sufficiency of all indirect
- Formally materialize the concept of what is understood as sustainable architecture.
2. Architectural Solution
The performance environment is extremely complex, hostile and unique. It is heartbreaking break advantage of a hill that has been used as a quarry, near the town of Mondragon, a traditional village and highly consolidated.
The inspiration for the architectural proposal has three sources: the cooperative (created in the town of Mondragon), uniqueness of the Basque people and geodes.
The cooperative makes the work done by an ordered set of parts more efficient and have higher value than the sum of parts, and greater complexity. Similarly, the union ordered buildings (apparently simple) by a regular spatial grid, will provide high spatial complexity in the set.
2. Singular and unique character of the Basque people
One of the greatest values of the Basque people is their uniqueness and beauty. In the proposed solution these values are associated with jewelry, natural gems and born from the bowels of the earth, For this reason, the buildings have been designed to form a structure inspired by numerical laws involved in the creation and the growth of natural gemstones. They should have two identical buildings, although very similar.
3. Geodes. Precious stones.
The breaking of a stone with vulgar and ugly spectrum reveals a set of precious stones (Geode). Similarly, the heartbreaking failure of a hill may reveal a set of embedded gems, offering a unique landscape and extreme beauty (Geoda 2055).
What appears may look unattractive, and also a wound in the earth, it can become something beautiful and valuable.
Perfectly regular management of these precious stones Basque, is inspired by the cooperative nature that permeates this Basque city.
Therefore, to order the whole has proposed a three-dimensional grid of cubes drawn up by 30 * 30 * 30 m. regularly organized, and attached to the horizontal and vertical surfaces of the quarry. Thus, on the ground level have provided a set of 5 * 4 = 20 blocks. While on the vertical surfaces of the quarry have "spill over" a set of cubes, arranged in a precise way through the spatial mesh.
Each cube occupies a specific place, according to the regular grid, regardless of the surface of the quarry. Thus, the whole resembling a "pocket" gigantic, and each cube looks like a crystal gem peeking outside.
Rupture of the hill has uncovered gems inside the Earth. "The stones of the Basque Country."
With respect to the communication systems of the organization, have established three different levels:
1. The level of communication filmed
2. The level of the Garden
3. The level of communication of the vertical portion of the quarry.
In the set are arranged various types of buildings. The aim is to give "life" all of the performance area, 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. That is, there is a mix of uses appropriate to give a certain character of the neighborhood social self, and make life as pleasant as possible for its occupants.
13 blocks of 81 houses each block: 1,053 homes
Top of the "Homage Tower"
6 blocks. 42,000 m2: "Museum J. M. Arizmendiarrieta "
4. Tertiary use zone
4 blocks. 28,000 m2
3 blocks in the form of Tower: "Tower Tribute." 20,000 m2
All buildings in the whole, regardless of their function have identical dimensions (30 * 30 * 30) and a similar form. In total, projected a kind of cube for each function (in total there are 7 different types of cube).
The area of tertiary uses for surface requirements, comprises 4 cubes, which are separated at the surface level, but are united in the lower two levels.
This gives more importance to the whole, each of the parties. Following the principle of loyal cooperation. All cubes are similar and, in turn, everyone is different. And the winner is the whole.
The only different is building the "Tower Tribute" a high-rise building, located at the entrance to the whole. This building acts as a "beacon" to indicate to travelers of the highway is going through a special place. A place in which to stop, they find a real jewel.
The "Homage Tower" is an office building, and at the top has a large auditorium, a restaurant and several conference centers and conferences.
All buildings have management cube and have similar characteristics: they are all designed to look like "jewels" gems emerge from the rock.
In this sense, every cubic buildings feature a double skin of glass, which acts as a greenhouse in winter and summer as sun protection. They also have a central covered courtyard, which acts as a greenhouse in winter, and as a playground cool, shaded in summer. Similarly, have a rooftop garden deck, so it can be used continuously, every day of the year (to protect its occupants from sun, wind and rain). This cover is formed by a set of sensors and solar thermal photovoltaic captors, who are perfectly integrated into the compositional structure of the cube.
The double skin of glass in buildings provides multimedia character. Thus, changing the information, the projected light and color, change the visual perception of the cube on a continuous basis throughout the day and night. This highlights even more the character of "jewel" of each cube.
Each block has 81 houses and 81 parking spaces. Each of the 9 floor has 9 homes. There are 7 types of houses, very similar to each other, with an area between 62'65 m2 and 71 m2 '65.
Each block has a covered patio, which guarantees a correct environmental conditions in both winter and summer.
In winter, open the side panels of the court, making a greenhouse. In summer, close to keep the patio warm. The entrances to the houses are made of glass, in order to provide the highest level of natural lighting.
Each home is modular, so that the user can vary by the number of panels stays the same. Additionally, you can project a certain number of housing "area", ie as containing variable uses.
All office buildings, malls and museums have a free plan, within the envelope of double glass skin. Similarly, have a central courtyard, serving again as a self-regulating heat, and as a communication system and visual spatial vertical.
Similarly, all these blocks have small side yards in contact with the outside, so that the windows of the block are "dropped" on these patios.
Closing the outer glass envelope of these patios perimeter greenhouses become insulators. If opened, they become fresh and shaded areas.
3. Sustainable Analysis
1. Resource Optimization
1.1. Natural Resources. They take full advantage of resources such as the sun (to generate hot water, heat the greenhouse buildings, and provide natural lighting to all rooms as long as the sun), wind, air (to cool buildings in summer) the earth (geothermal system-patented architectural Luis De Garrido-to heat and cool homes), rainwater (water reserves for irrigation and drinking to make it through reverse osmosis purifiers domestic) ... ..
1.2. Resources made. The materials used are maximized, reducing potential waste through proper project, a total industrialization of all components of the complex, and effective management of its construction.
1.3. Resources recovered, reused and recycled.
The vast majority of building materials can be recovered, so that all buildings can be removed in its entirety and all its components can be repaired in a simple manner.
On the other hand, has promoted the use of recycled and recyclable materials.
2. Reduced energy consumption
2.1. Using materials with low energy requirement
All materials used were chosen because their production has been used the least amount of energy.
The buildings will be constructed with minimum energy consumption due to the industrial system construction and prefabrication of each component of the buildings.
The vast majority of materials used can be recovered easily (once the life of the building) to be repaired, or used in another building.
2.4. Energy self-sufficiency
Integration into the envelopes of buildings solar thermal sensors, photovoltaic solar captors, and geothermal systems, makes the whole is completely self-sufficient from an energy standpoint.
2.5. High level bioclimatic
The typology of the buildings is a result of intense bioclimatic analysis.
In winter, buildings tend to warm themselves, becoming greenhouses. Thus, it minimizes the energy required for heating (which has a geothermal and solar origin).
In contrast, in summer, just opening a small set of gates, greenhouses become sunscreens. Thus, along with fresh architectural systems. The buildings are kept cool without air conditioning systems.
2.6. Eliminate the need for air conditioning systems
The buildings designed mechanical systems do not need air conditioning.
2.7. Heating energy efficient
The boilers have a high energy efficiency, and fuel consumption.
2.8. LED lighting systems
The lighting of the common elements, double skin of glass and ventilated facades is based LEDs. Similarly, the interior lighting of the buildings has a high percentage of LEDs.
3. Use of alternative energy sources
The energy used is of two types: solar thermal (solar captors to produce the ACS, and sensors for generating photovoltaic electricity) and geothermal (to generate hot air and fresh air).
3.1. Solar thermal (heat sensors)
Protections built into the glass of the roof garden, solar thermal captors guarantee the generation of ACS for buildings, and support for the geothermal system.
3.2. Solar photovoltaic (PV captors)
Also integrated on the protective glass of the roof garden and south facades of the buildings, photovoltaic sensors provide all the electricity needed by the buildings when they are busy (when not busy unused energy generated automatically injected in the grid).
3.3. Geothermal architectural
In summer it freshens the air inside the central courtyards of each building with a simple and efficient air exchanger. Outside air passes through a cooling underground labyrinths, until you can reach 23 degrees in summer, or even less. Thus all buildings can be cooled without any energy consumption.
3.4. Geothermal Energy
In residential buildings, in addition to its bioclimatic design and architectural geothermal systems to heat the ventilation air is used geothermal heating through geothermal heat pumps.
In commercial buildings (with higher heat requirements) in addition to its bioclimatic design and architectural-geothermal systems to heat the ventilation air is used geothermal underfloor heating. In winter, hot water is drawn from underground aquifers, Thus, mechanical exchangers buildings can be heated by underfloor heating. No need for a complex structure, since the level of bioclimatic design of buildings, minimizes energy consumption.
4. Reduction of waste and emissions
For the whole design strategies have been used to ensure maximum use of the materials used, the elimination of emissions and the maximum reduction of waste.
4.1. Optimal Project
All buildings have been designed to use prefabricated elements can be assembled and disassembled with ease. In this way you can recover and reuse all its components.
4.2. Maximum reduction of artifacts in the buildings
It has decreased the maximum number of artifacts from the buildings. Due to the proper design of the buildings are not necessary air conditioning systems, home automation systems are not required, many appliances are not necessary ... .. No free energy-consuming devices and need maintenance.
4.3. Correct use of non-emissive
No material used in producing harmful emissions to the environment or the health of people.
4.4. Maximum reduction, management and use of organic waste generated.
5. Improving health and wellbeing
All materials used are environmentally friendly and healthy and have no emissions that can affect human health. Similarly, all of the architectural buildings are naturally ventilated, and because of its architectural structure, making the most of natural lighting, creating a healthy environment and provides the best quality of life possible to the occupants of the same .
6. Reduced price of the building and maintenance
The architectural ensemble was designed to have a simple management, and very easy to maintain and repair. To do this we have used the technology more advanced control and telecommunications at the time.
It has reduced the maximum cost of buildings and houses using three different strategies:
6.1. High-rise buildings. Trying to reduce the maximum impact the price of land
6.2. System of prefabricated construction.
6.3. Flexible types of housing. So that every user to purchase only the surface you need.
4. Bioclimatic Characteristics
1.1. Heat Generation.
To generate heat in each of the buildings have used the following techniques:
1.1.1. Techniques to keep buildings cool in winter:
It has projected a double skin of glass with an intermediate air chamber (width variable). The outer skin consists of a double glazed joinery (6-12-4), and inner laminated glass (in the east-west facades inner skin is made up of prefabricated reinforced concrete panels and natural insulation of hemp). .
The exterior glass has a special screen so that sunlight passes perpendicular to the glass (winter) and does not let the sun flush (summer). The inner skin has an outer system of awnings and a triple inside rail of blinds. The set provides a very high insulation prevents energy loss in winter.
1.1.2. Techniques for heating buildings
- Greenhouse effect.
The double skin of glass allows two systems to generate heat for the building. On the one hand allows the solar radiation entering the rooms of the buildings and hot radiation. This heat is maintained during the night due to the high inertia of the set and limited energy losses. On the other hand the double skin allows a greenhouse double. The hot air generated by the camera stands between the double skin and enters into the building. In addition, through an ingenious system of openings of the double skin of glass is allowed in winter ventilation with preheated air through the greenhouse. This will keep the temperature of the building, without HVAC mechanical systems, and therefore without any energy consumption.
- Solar thermal Captors.
Integrated into the structure of the roof gardens surround, have a set of sensors located solar thermal (vacuum tubes). This set provides shade and protects the building from solar radiation in summer, while generating hot water they need.
- High thermal inertia of buildings.
The heat generated during the day by the above methods accumulates in buildings due to its high thermal inertia and keep them warm all night. This heating facilitates the next day.
- Geothermal energy. Underground hot water bag.
From the bag of hot water extracted groundwater flow enough hot water to heat part of the floor using a radiant floor system. (Only for commercial buildings).
1.2. Heat Transfer (and light).
To heat the rooms north has designed a system of heat transfer through the double glass skin. By fans (located on the inside of the double skin) drives the hot-air generated in the southern part of the buildings, to the north, surrounding the building and heating everything in its path
1.3. Heat buildup.
Due to the high thermal mass of buildings, some of the heat generated during the day remains accumulated during the night, keeping the rooms warm, with little energy consumption.
2.1. Generation of Fresco.
To generate fresh buildings have used the following techniques:
2.1.1. Techniques to keep the buildings warm in summer:
- Protection against direct solar radiation.
In the areas south of the buildings solar protection is achieved by folding down the outer glass of the double-glass skin. This avoids heat generation greenhouse, plus opaque horizontal elements (which are the solar thermal captors) protect the glass from direct radiation.
In addition, we used another complementary technique of using glass-silk screened with a mesh of points, which allow the passage of the sun's rays perpendicular to the glass (winter) and do not let the sun flush (summer). In this case, the hot air that is created in the double skin of glass up through the vents that serve as separation between the slabs, and escape to the outside. This circulating air vents double glass skin and removes heat gains, insulating the building.
In the areas to the east and west of the buildings horizontal sunscreens do not work, so have arranged a series of panels with metallic shading inclined inside the double skin of glass. Thus solar radiation does not reach inside the buildings and the air heated in the intermediate chamber rises to the top outside through horizontal vents are at the height of each cast of the buildings.
- Protection against indirect solar radiation.
This is achieved through three levels of internal blinds opaque, translucent and transparent multi-colored. This controls the amount of light in each room of the interior of buildings (between 200 and 600 lux) and mood of the workers (through the color of the blinds).
2.1.2. Techniques to cool buildings in summer
- Fresh air Geothermal Generation
Around the buildings are arranged several shots that channel fresh air to a set of galleries where underground geothermal cooling naturally stable due to the temperature of the subsoil. The cooled air rises and the inner courtyards to reach the different rooms, refreshing in its path. To cool the building, the air is heated and rises and escapes through the upper openings of the exterior windows.
- Refresh at night (circadian rhythms)
The floors of the buildings have a high thermal inertia. This night the buildings are cooled by fresh air outside, and stay fresh throughout the next day. A simple system allows evening hatches between the outside air, while air enters day only by the core (fresh air).
- Geothermal energy. Exchange underground cold water.
In the cold pack is extracted groundwater flow enough cold water to cool part of the floor by a floor heating system. (Only for commercial buildings).
- Dehumidification-water spray.
To cool buildings naturally has made use of a simple and natural: water spray, in order to evaporate and thus, lower the temperature of the immediate environment. However, this method increases the humidity level, and therefore increases the feeling of embarrassment. Therefore, we first de-moisturizes the air, filtering it through salts which absorb moisture, and through a mechanical device based on the "Peltier effect". Second, the resulting dry air is cooled by a water spray evaporation. The result is fresh air, and humidity with a similar or lower than the natural state of the environment.
2.2. Fresh transmission.
The fresh air entering the building through the courtyards, cool all the rooms in their wake. The air escapes through the glass top of the inner skin of double skin of glass. It creates an overpressure in the top of the room so the air out, preventing outside air from entering the rooms. Thus the remaining stays fresh throughout the day without any need for mechanical air conditioning systems.
2.3. Accumulation of Fresco.
The high thermal inertia of buildings (due to heavy intermediate floors and gardens) allows the fresh generated is maintained throughout the day, with little energy consumption.
5. Most important innovations
- Self-sufficiency of water
The architectural complex is self-sufficient in water. That is, does not connect to the systems of municipal water supply (although they have maintained in order to have an alternative source of water, if necessary).
The water required for human consumption, human hygiene, irrigation of crops and irrigation of green areas is obtained from several complementary sources:
The set has several probes to extract water from underground aquifers. The water thus obtained is filtered and purified to become unfit for human consumption.
- Water from rain
Rainwater that falls on the set is collected and stored in various reservoirs of the architectural perimeter. The water is filtered and purified to become unfit for human consumption.
- Recycling of greywater
Gray water from buildings filtered and stored in warehouses located for this purpose in each of the buildings. The water thus obtained is filtered and purified to become unfit for human consumption.
Note that part of the recycled water obtained is used as a compositional and architectural plastic. The water is pumped to the top of the quarry through various channels in parallel, thus obtaining a real waterfall.
This cascade is used to cool the atmosphere and create a microclimate around the set. Similarly, this waterfall is a formal device that transforms, from time to time, the visual perception of architectural.
The architectural complex is self-sufficient in energy. That is, does not connect to the systems of municipal electricity (although they have remained to power into the grid surplus power generated by the set).
The buildings need very little energy due to its optimal bioclimatic design. On the other hand, buildings integrated into its design a lot of solar thermal and photovoltaic captors and geothermal cooling. Both factors make buildings self-sufficient whole, from an energy standpoint. Moreover, the set has surplus power, which is injected into the municipal system continuously.
The set has two levels of parallel circulation. The upper level has a huge organic garden, which extends to the inner gardens of the buildings, the roof gardens and, in general, the entire surface of the quarry. This garden provides food staples to the neighbors of the architectural, insufficient for current eating patterns, but enough in an emergency.
Infinite life cycle
All building components are designed for mounting in dry base screws, nails and pressure. This can be easily recovered from the building to be repaired, reused or returned. Thus, the building can last indefinitely, with very low power consumption.
Portability total, independent pieces
All components have been designed so that buildings can be assembled and disassembled easily and indefinitely. For this reason, these elements can be transported anywhere, to be easily mounted and removed as many times as necessary.
All components are factory buildings, then these components will be assembled one by one, until the final construction of buildings. Of course, this forces a very detailed architectural, designing piece by piece, and coordinated with each of the manufacturers.
Integrated waste disposal
All components of the factory buildings will be made without generating any residue. Similarly, the buildings are assembled without generating waste, and can be detached (if necessary) without generating waste. The key achievements are: absolute industrialization, the design of assembly systems, and the system composition used in architectural design.
- 100% green roof (100% construction-100% green area)
Seen from above the whole is perceived as if nothing had been built, and roof gardens that fill the entire surface of the buildings. This shows as in any field can be constructed with an even 100% occupancy of the land, while ensuring the permanence of a green area of 100% of the land. The gardens of the roof gardens have been designed on the basis of plant species indigenous to the Basque Country.
By design, buildings can take different architectural configurations. The interior is airy, and through a system of movable partitions can take any kind of spatial partitioning. Spaces thus obtained can accommodate any type of activity over time. This almost immediately, and without any financial cost.
The double skin of glass screen printing of each of the buildings are equipped with thousands of tiny multicolored LEDs, individually controlled, allowing them to compose all kinds of scenes and images. In addition, this double skin of glass screen printing text and images are projected through a set of synchronized video projectors. In this way, lighting and images are able to manipulate the forms and spaces, giving the buildings an ethereal and intangible. Physical spaces are mixed with virtual spaces, and can not distinguish where they end architectural elements, and where visual information begins. It is therefore of real media buildings that change in appearance and color, according to environmental circumstances.